"Entry Inhibitors (including Fusion Inhibitors) and CCR5 Co-receptor Antagonist
Entry inhibitors block HIV entry into CD4+ cells.
The only drug in this class "...
(lamivudine and zidovudine)
HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, MYOPATHY, LACTIC ACIDOSIS, EXACERBATIONS OF HEPATITIS B
Hematologic Toxicity: Zidovudine, one of the 2 active ingredients in COMBIVIR® (lamivudine and zidovudine) Tablets, has been associated with hematologic toxicity including neutropenia and anemia, particularly in patients with advanced HIV-1 disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Myopathy: Prolonged use of zidovudine has been associated with symptomatic myopathy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly: Lactic acidosis and hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues alone or in combination, including lamivudine, zidovudine, and other antiretrovirals. Suspend treatment if clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Exacerbations of Hepatitis B: Severe, acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV-1 and have discontinued lamivudine, which is one component of COMBIVIR. Hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who discontinue COMBIVIR and are co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
COMBIVIR: COMBIVIR Tablets are combination tablets containing lamivudine and zidovudine. Lamivudine (EPIVIR) and zidovudine (RETROVIR, azidothymidine, AZT, or ZDV) are synthetic nucleoside analogues with activity against HIV-1.
COMBIVIR Tablets are for oral administration. Each film-coated tablet contains 150 mg of lamivudine, 300 mg of zidovudine, and the inactive ingredients colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, sodium starch glycolate, and titanium dioxide.
Lamivudine: The chemical name of lamivudine is (2R,cis)-4-amino-1-(2hydroxymethyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)-(1H)-pyrimidin-2-one. Lamivudine is the (-) enantiomer of a dideoxy analogue of cytidine. Lamivudine has also been referred to as (-)2',3'-dideoxy, 3'thiacytidine. It has a molecular formula of C8H11N3O3S and a molecular weight of 229.3. It has the following structural formula:
Lamivudine is a white to off-white crystalline solid with a solubility of approximately 70 mg/mL in water at 20°C.
Zidovudine: The chemical name of zidovudine is 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. It has a molecular formula of C10H13N5O4 and a molecular weight of 267.24. It has the following structural formula:
Zidovudine is a white to beige, odorless, crystalline solid with a solubility of 20.1 mg/mL in water at 25°C.
What are the possible side effects of lamivudine and zidovudine (Combivir)?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
This medication may cause lactic acidosis (a build-up of lactic acid in the body, which can be fatal). Lactic acidosis can start slowly and get worse over time. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms of lactic acidosis, such as: muscle pain or weakness, numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs, trouble breathing, stomach pain, nausea with vomiting, fast or uneven heart rate,...
What are the precautions when taking lamivudine, zidovudine (Combivir)?
Before taking lamivudine/zidovudine, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to either drug; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney problems, liver problems (such as hepatitis B or C, cirrhosis), disease of the pancreas (pancreatitis), alcohol use, low red/white blood cell counts.
This drug may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.
Also limit alcohol because it can increase the...
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/16/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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