"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Tivicay (dolutegravir), a new drug to treat HIV-1 infection.
Tivicay is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor that interferes with one of the enzymes necessary for HIV to multiply. "...
Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly With Steatosis
Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs, including tenofovir DF, a component of COMPLERA, in combination with other antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women. Obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may be risk factors. Particular caution should be exercised when administering nucleoside analogs to any patient with known risk factors for liver disease; however, cases have also been reported in patients with no known risk factors. Treatment with COMPLERA should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations).
Patients Coinfected With HIV-1 and HBV
It is recommended that all patients with HIV-1 be tested for the presence of chronic hepatitis B virus before initiating antiretroviral therapy. COMPLERA is not approved for the treatment of chronic HBV infection and the safety and efficacy of COMPLERA have not been established in patients coinfected with HBV and HIV-1. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued emtricitabine or tenofovir DF, two of the components of COMPLERA. In some patients infected with HBV and treated with EMTRIVA®, the exacerbations of hepatitis B were associated with liver decompensation and liver failure. Patients who are coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months after stopping treatment with COMPLERA. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted.
New Onset Or Worsening Renal Impairment
Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome (renal tubular injury with severe hypophosphatemia), has been reported with the use of tenofovir DF [See ADVERSE REACTIONS].
It is recommended that estimated creatinine clearance be assessed in all patients prior to initiating therapy and as clinically appropriate during therapy with COMPLERA. In patients at risk of renal dysfunction, including patients who have previously experienced renal events while receiving HEPSERA®, it is recommended that estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein be assessed prior to initiation of COMPLERA, and periodically during COMPLERA therapy.
COMPLERA should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent (e.g., high-dose or multiple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)) [See DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Cases of acute renal failure after initiation of high dose or multiple NSAIDs have been reported in HIV-infected patients with risk factors for renal dysfunction who appeared stable on tenofovir DF. Some patients required hospitalization and renal replacement therapy. Alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered, if needed, in patients at risk for renal dysfunction.
Persistent or worsening bone pain, pain in extremities, fractures and/or muscular pain or weakness may be manifestations of proximal renal tubulopathy and should prompt an evaluation of renal function in at-risk patients.
Emtricitabine and tenofovir are principally eliminated by the kidney; however, rilpivirine is not. Since COMPLERA is a combination product and the dose of the individual components cannot be altered, patients with estimated creatinine clearance below 50 mL per minute should not receive COMPLERA.
In healthy subjects, supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 mg once daily and 300 mg once daily) have been shown to prolong the QTc interval of the electrocardiogram [See DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. COMPLERA should be used with caution when coadministered with a drug with a known risk of Torsade de Pointes.
The adverse reaction depressive disorders (depressed mood, depression, dysphoria, major depression, mood altered, negative thoughts, suicide attempt, suicidal ideation) has been reported with rilpivirine. During the Phase 3 trials (N=1368) through 96 weeks, the incidence of depressive disorders (regardless of causality, severity) reported among rilpivirine (N=686) or efavirenz (N=682) was 9% and 8%, respectively. Most events were mild or moderate in severity. The incidence of Grades 3 and 4 depressive disorders (regardless of causality) was 1% for both rilpivirine and efavirenz. The incidence of discontinuation due to depressive disorders among rilpivirine or efavirenz was 1% in each arm. Suicidal ideation was reported in 4 subjects in each arm while suicide attempt was reported in 2 subjects in the rilpivirine arm. Patients with severe depressive symptoms should seek immediate medical evaluation to assess the possibility that the symptoms are related to COMPLERA, and if so, to determine whether the risks of continued therapy outweigh the benefits.
Hepatic adverse events have been reported in patients receiving a rilpivirine containing regimen. Patients with underlying hepatitis B or C, or marked elevations in liver- associated tests prior to treatment may be at increased risk for worsening or development of liver-associated test elevations with use of COMPLERA. A few cases of hepatic toxicity have been reported in patients receiving a rilpivirine containing regimen who had no pre-existing hepatic disease or other identifiable risk factors. Appropriate laboratory testing prior to initiating therapy and monitoring for hepatotoxicity during therapy with COMPLERA is recommended in patients with underlying hepatic disease such as hepatitis B or C, or in patients with marked elevations in liver-associated tests prior to treatment initiation. Liver-associated test monitoring should also be considered for patients without pre-existing hepatic dysfunction or other risk factors.
Bone Effects Of Tenofovir DF
Bone Mineral Density
In clinical trials in HIV-1-infected adults, tenofovir DF was associated with slightly greater decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in biochemical markers of bone metabolism, suggesting increased bone turnover relative to comparators. Serum parathyroid hormone levels and 1,25 Vitamin D levels were also higher in subjects receiving tenofovir DF. For more information, please consult the VIREAD® prescribing information.
The effects of tenofovir DF-associated changes in BMD and biochemical markers on long-term bone health and future fracture risk are unknown. Assessment of BMD should be considered for patients who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or other risk factors for osteoporosis or bone loss. Although the effect of supplementation with calcium and Vitamin D was not studied, such supplementation may be beneficial for all patients. If bone abnormalities are suspected then appropriate consultation should be obtained.
Cases of osteomalacia associated with proximal renal tubulopathy, manifested as bone pain or pain in extremities and which may contribute to fractures, have been reported in association with the use of tenofovir DF [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Arthralgias and muscle pain or weakness have also been reported in cases of proximal renal tubulopathy. Hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia secondary to proximal renal tubulopathy should be considered in patients at risk of renal dysfunction who present with persistent or worsening bone or muscle symptoms while receiving products containing tenofovir DF [See New Onset or Worsening Renal Impairment].
Coadministration With Other Products
COMPLERA should not be administered concurrently with other medicinal products containing the active components emtricitabine or tenofovir DF (ATRIPLA®, EMTRIVA, STRIBILD®, TRUVADA®, VIREAD), with medicinal products containing lamivudine (Epivir®, Epivir-HBV®, Epzicom®, Combivir®, Trizivir®), or with adefovir dipivoxil (HEPSERA). COMPLERA should not be administered with rilpivirine (Edurant) unless needed for dose adjustment (e.g., with rifabutin) [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including the components of COMPLERA. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections [such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), or tuberculosis], which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution, however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of treatment.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
A statement to patients and healthcare providers is included on the product's bottle label: ALERT: Find out about medicines that should NOT be taken with COMPLERA. A Patient Package Insert for COMPLERA is available for patient information.
Information For Patients
Patients should be advised that:
- Patients should remain under the care of a healthcare provider when using COMPLERA.
- Patients should be informed that COMPLERA is not a cure for HIV infection. Patients should stay on continuous HIV therapy to control HIV infection and decrease HIV-related illnesses. Patients should be told that sustained decreases in plasma HIV RNA have been associated with a reduced risk of progression to AIDS and death.
- Patients should be advised to continue to practice safer sex and to use latex or polyurethane condoms to lower the chance of sexual contact with any body fluids such as semen, vaginal secretions or blood. Patients should be advised never to reuse or share needles.
- Patients should be advised not to breastfeed because at least two of the drugs contained in COMPLERA can be passed to the baby in breast milk. It is not known whether this could harm the baby. Also, mothers with HIV-1 should not breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in breast milk.
- It is important to take COMPLERA on a regular dosing schedule with food and to avoid missing doses. A protein drink is not a substitute for food. If the healthcare provider decides to stop COMPLERA and the patient is switched to new medicines to treat HIV that includes rilpivirine tablets, the rilpivirine tablets should be taken only with a meal.
- If the patient misses a dose of COMPLERA within 12 hours of the time it is usually taken, the patient should take COMPLERA with food as soon as possible and then take the next dose of COMPLERA at the regularly scheduled time. If a patient misses a dose of COMPLERA by more than 12 hours, the patient should not take the missed dose, but resume the usual dosing schedule. Inform the patient that he or she should not take more or less than the prescribed dose of COMPLERA at any one time.
- Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported. Treatment with COMPLERA should be suspended in any patients who develop clinical symptoms suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (including nausea, vomiting, unusual or unexpected stomach discomfort, and weakness) [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Patients with HIV-1 should be tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) before initiating antiretroviral therapy. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued EMTRIVA or VIREAD [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. COMPLERA should not be discontinued without first informing their healthcare provider.
- Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome, has been reported in association with the use of VIREAD. COMPLERA should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent (e.g., high-dose or multiple NSAIDs) [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- COMPLERA may interact with many drugs; therefore, patients should be advised to report to their healthcare provider the use of any other prescription or nonprescription medication or herbal products, including St. John's wort [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- COMPLERA should not be coadministered with the following drugs, as significant decreases in rilpivirine plasma concentrations may occur due to CYP3A enzyme induction or gastric pH increase, which may result in loss of virologic response and possible resistance to COMPLERA or to the class of NNRTIs: the anticonvulsants carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin; the antimycobacterials rifampin, rifapentine; proton pump inhibitors, such as esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole; the glucocorticoid systemic dexamethasone (more than a single dose); or St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) [See CONTRAINDICATIONS].
- For patients receiving rifabutin, an additional 25 mg tablet of rilpivirine (Edurant) once per day is recommended to be taken concomitantly with COMPLERA and with a meal for the duration of rifabutin coadministration.
- Patients should be informed that depressive disorders (depressed mood, depression, dysphoria, major depression, mood altered, negative thoughts, suicide attempt, suicidal ideation) have been reported with COMPLERA. If they experience depressive symptoms, they should seek immediate medical evaluation [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Patients should be informed that hepatotoxicity has been reported with COMPLERA [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Decreases in bone mineral density have been observed with the use of VIREAD. Bone mineral density (BMD) monitoring should be considered in patients who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or other risk factors for osteoporosis or bone loss [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- COMPLERA should not be coadministered with ATRIPLA, EMTRIVA, STRIBILD, TRUVADA, or VIREAD; or with drugs containing lamivudine, including Combivir, Epivir or Epivir-HBV, Epzicom, or Trizivir; or with HEPSERA. COMPLERA should not be coadministered with rilpivirine (Edurant) unless needed for dose adjustment (e.g., with rifabutin) [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Redistribution or accumulation of body fat may occur in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and that the cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- In some patients with advanced HIV infection (AIDS), signs and symptoms of inflammation from previous infections may occur soon after anti-HIV treatment is started. It is believed that these symptoms are due to an improvement in the body's immune response, enabling the body to fight infections that may have been present with no obvious symptoms. Patients should be advised to inform their healthcare provider immediately of any symptoms of infection [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Emtricitabine: In long-term carcinogenicity studies of emtricitabine, no drug-related increases in tumor incidence were found in mice at doses up to 750 mg per kg per day (26 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg per day) or in rats at doses up to 600 mg per kg per day (31 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose).
Emtricitabine did not affect fertility in male rats at approximately 140-fold or in male and female mice at approximately 60-fold higher exposures (AUC) than in humans given the recommended 200 mg daily dose. Fertility was normal in the offspring of mice exposed daily from before birth (in utero) through sexual maturity at daily exposures (AUC) of approximately 60-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended 200 mg daily dose.
Rilpivirine: Rilpivirine was evaluated for carcinogenic potential by oral gavage administration to mice and rats up to 104 weeks. Daily doses of 20, 60 and 160 mg per kg per day were administered to mice and doses of 40, 200, 500 and 1500 mg per kg per day were administered to rats. In rats, there were no drug related neoplasms. In mice, rilpivirine was positive for hepatocellular neoplasms in both males and females. The observed hepatocellular findings in mice may be rodent-specific. At the lowest tested doses in the carcinogenicity studies, the systemic exposures (based on AUC) to rilpivirine were 21 fold (mice) and 3 fold (rats), relative to those observed in humans at the recommended dose (25 mg once daily).
Rilpivirine has tested negative in the absence and presence of a metabolic activation system, in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay and in vitro clastogenicity mouse lymphoma assay. Rilpivirine did not induce chromosomal damage in the in vivo micronucleus test in mice.
In a study conducted in rats, there were no effects on mating or fertility with rilpivirine up to 400 mg per kg per day, a dose of rilpivirine that showed maternal toxicity. This dose is associated with an exposure that is approximately 40 times higher than the exposure in humans at the recommended dose of 25 mg once daily.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Long-term oral carcinogenicity studies of tenofovir DF in mice and rats were carried out at exposures up to approximately 16 times (mice) and 5 times (rats) those observed in humans at the therapeutic dose for HIV-1 infection. At the high dose in female mice, liver adenomas were increased at exposures 16 times that in humans. In rats, the study was negative for carcinogenic findings at exposures up to 5 times that observed in humans at the therapeutic dose.
Tenofovir DF was mutagenic in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and negative in an in vitro bacterial mutagenicity test (Ames test). In an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, tenofovir DF was negative when administered to male mice.
There were no effects on fertility, mating performance or early embryonic development when tenofovir DF was administered to male rats at a dose equivalent to 10 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons for 28 days prior to mating and to female rats for 15 days prior to mating through day seven of gestation. There was, however, an alteration of the estrous cycle in female rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
The incidence of fetal variations and malformations was not increased in embryofetal toxicity studies performed with emtricitabine in mice at exposures (AUC) approximately 60 times higher and in rabbits at approximately 120 times higher than human exposures at the recommended daily dose.
Studies in animals have shown no evidence of embryonic or fetal toxicity or an effect on reproductive function. In offspring from rat and rabbit dams treated with rilpivirine during pregnancy and lactation, there were no toxicologically significant effects on developmental endpoints. The exposures at the embryo-fetal No Observed Adverse Effects Levels in rats and rabbits were respectively 15 and 70 times higher than the exposure in humans at the recommended dose of 25 mg once daily.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 14 and 19 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons and revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to tenofovir.
There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, COMPLERA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
To monitor fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to COMPLERA, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has been established. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-258-4263.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV.
Samples of breast milk obtained from five HIV-1-infected mothers show that emtricitabine is secreted in human milk. Breastfeeding infants whose mothers are being treated with emtricitabine may be at risk for developing viral resistance to emtricitabine. Other emtricitabine-associated risks in infants breastfed by mothers being treated with emtricitabine are unknown.
Studies in lactating rats and their offspring indicate that rilpivirine was present in rat milk. It is not known whether rilpivirine is secreted in human milk.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
Samples of breast milk obtained from five HIV-1-infected mothers in the first post-partum week show that tenofovir is excreted in human milk. The impact of this exposure in breastfed infants is unknown.
Because of both the potential for HIV transmission and the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, mothers should be instructed not to breastfeed if they are receiving COMPLERA.
COMPLERA is not recommended for patients less than 18 years of age because not all the individual components of COMPLERA have safety, efficacy and dosing recommendations available for all pediatric age groups [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Clinical studies of emtricitabine, rilpivirine, or tenofovir DF did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for the elderly patients should be cautious, keeping in mind the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Because COMPLERA is a fixed-dose combination, it should not be prescribed for patients requiring dosage adjustment such as those with moderate, severe or end stage renal impairment (estimated creatinine clearance below 50 mL per minute) or that require dialysis [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dose adjustment of COMPLERA is required in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. COMPLERA has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/17/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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