"Troy Brown, RN
Medscape Medical News
Clostridium difficile caused nearly half a million infections and was associated with about 29,000 deaths in 2011, according to new data released today by the Centers for Disease Control "...
(See also ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Primarily involvement of the extrapyramidal mechanism producing some of the dystonic reactions described above.
Symptoms of central nervous system depression to the point of somnolence or coma. Agitation and restlessness may also occur. Other possible manifestations include convulsions, EKG changes and cardiac arrhythmias, fever and autonomic reactions such as hypotension, dry mouth and ileus.
It is important to determine other medications taken by the patient since multiple-dose therapy is common in overdosage situations. Treatment is essentially symptomatic and supportive. Early gastric lavage is helpful. Keep patient under observation and maintain an open airway, since involvement of the extrapyramidal mechanism may produce dysphagia and respiratory difficulty in severe overdosage. Do not attempt to induce emesis because a dystonic reaction of the head or neck may develop that could result in aspiration of vomitus. Extra-pyramidal symptoms may be treated with anti-parkinsonism drugs, barbiturates or diphenhydramine. See prescribing information for these products. Care should be taken to avoid increasing respiratory depression.
Stimulants that may cause convulsions (e.g., picrotoxin or pentylenetetrazol) should be avoided.
If hypotension occurs, the standard measures for managing circulatory shock should be initiated. If it is desirable to administer a vasoconstrictor, norepinephrine bitartrate and phenylephrine hydrochloride are most suitable. Other pressor agents, including epinephrine, are not recommended because phenothiazine derivatives may reverse the usual elevating action of these agents and cause a further lowering of blood pressure. Limited experience indicates that phenothiazines are not dialyzable.
Do not use in comatose states or in the presence of large amounts of central nervous system depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, narcotics, etc.).
Do not use in pediatric surgery.
Do not use in children under 2 years of age or under 20 lbs. Do not use in children for conditions for which dosage has not been established.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/13/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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