"Nov. 16, 2012 -- Air pollution may be bad for older brains, a new study shows.
Older adults who live in areas of high pollution did not do as well on tests of memory and other thinking skills, according to a new study.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials
COPAXONE 20 mg per mL per day
Among 563 patients treated with COPAXONE in blinded placebo-controlled trials, approximately 5% of the subjects discontinued treatment because of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly associated with discontinuation were: injection site reactions, dyspnea, urticaria, vasodilatation, and hypersensitivity.
The most common adverse reactions were: injection site reactions, vasodilatation, rash, dyspnea, and chest pain.
Table 1 lists treatment-emergent signs and symptoms that occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with COPAXONE 20 mg per mL in the placebo-controlled trials. These signs and symptoms were numerically more common in patients treated with COPAXONE than in patients treated with placebo. Adverse reactions were usually mild in intensity.
Table 1: Adverse reactions in controlled clinical
trials with an incidence > 2% of patients and more frequent with
COPAXONE (20 mg per mL daily) than with placebo
|COPAXONE 20 mg/mL
|Blood And Lymphatic System Disorders||Lymphadenopathy||7%||3%|
|Eye Disorders||Eye Disorder||3%||1%|
|General Disorders And Administration Site Conditions||Injection Site Erythema||43%||10%|
|Injection Site Pain||40%||20%|
|Injection Site Pruritus||27%||4%|
|Injection Site Mass||26%||6%|
|Injection Site Edema||19%||4%|
|Injection Site Inflammation||9%||1%|
|Injection Site Reaction||8%||1%|
|Injection Site Hypersensitivity||4%||0%|
|Injection Site Fibrosis||2%||1%|
|Injection Site Atrophy*||2%||0%|
|Immune System Disorders||Hypersensitivity||3%||2%|
|Infections And Infestations||Infection||30%||28%|
|Metabolism And Nutrition Disorders||Weight Increased||3%||1%|
|Musculoskeletal And Connective Tissue Disorders||Back Pain||12%||10%|
|Neoplasms Benign, Malignant And Unspecified (Incl Cysts And Polyps)||Benign Neoplasm of Skin||2%||1%|
|Nervous System Disorders||Tremor||4%||2%|
|Renal And Urinary Disorders||Micturition Urgency||5%||4%|
|Respiratory, Thoracic And Mediastinal Disorders||Dyspnea||14%||4%|
|Skin And Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders||Rash||19%||11%|
|*Injection site atrophy comprises terms relating to localized lipoatrophy at injection site|
Adverse reactions which occurred only in 4 to 5 more subjects in the COPAXONE group than in the placebo group (less than 1% difference), but for which a relationship to COPAXONE could not be excluded, were arthralgia and herpes simplex.
Laboratory analyses were performed on all patients participating in the clinical program for COPAXONE. Clinically-significant laboratory values for hematology, chemistry, and urinalysis were similar for both COPAXONE and placebo groups in blinded clinical trials. In controlled trials one patient discontinued treatment due to thrombocytopenia (16 x109/L), which resolved after discontinuation of treatment.
Data on adverse reactions occurring in the controlled clinical trials of COPAXONE 20 mg per mL were analyzed to evaluate differences based on sex. No clinically-significant differences were identified. Ninety-six percent of patients in these clinical trials were Caucasian. The majority of patients treated with COPAXONE were between the ages of 18 and 45. Consequently, data are inadequate to perform an analysis of the adverse reaction incidence related to clinically-relevant age subgroups.
Other Adverse Reactions
In the paragraphs that follow, the frequencies of less commonly reported adverse clinical reactions are presented. Because the reports include reactions observed in open and uncontrolled premarketing studies (n= 979), the role of COPAXONE in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Furthermore, variability associated with adverse reaction reporting, the terminology used to describe adverse reactions, etc., limit the value of the quantitative frequency estimates provided. Reaction frequencies are calculated as the number of patients who used COPAXONE and reported a reaction divided by the total number of patients exposed to COPAXONE. All reported reactions are included except those already listed in the previous table, those too general to be informative, and those not reasonably associated with the use of the drug. Reactions are further classified within body system categories and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following definitions: Frequent adverse reactions are defined as those occurring in at least 1/100 patients and infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1,000 patients.
Body as a Whole:
Infrequent: Injection site hematoma, moon face, cellulitis, hernia, injection site abscess, serum sickness, suicide attempt, injection site hypertrophy, injection site melanosis, lipoma, and photosensitivity reaction.
Infrequent: Dry mouth, stomatitis, burning sensation on tongue, cholecystitis, colitis, esophageal ulcer, esophagitis, gastrointestinal carcinoma, gum hemorrhage, hepatomegaly, increased appetite, melena, mouth ulceration, pancreas disorder, pancreatitis, rectal hemorrhage, tenesmus, tongue discoloration, and duodenal ulcer.
Hemic and Lymphatic:
Metabolic and Nutritional:
Frequent: Abnormal dreams, emotional lability, and stupor.
Infrequent: Aphasia, ataxia, convulsion, circumoral paresthesia, depersonalization, hallucinations, hostility, hypokinesia, coma, concentration disorder, facial paralysis, decreased libido, manic reaction, memory impairment, myoclonus, neuralgia, paranoid reaction, paraplegia, psychotic depression, and transient stupor.
Skin and Appendages:
Infrequent: Dry skin, skin hypertrophy, dermatitis, furunculosis, psoriasis, angioedema, contact dermatitis, erythema nodosum, fungal dermatitis, maculopapular rash, pigmentation, benign skin neoplasm, skin carcinoma, skin striae, and vesiculobullous rash.
Frequent: Visual field defect.
Infrequent: Vaginitis, flank pain (kidney), abortion, breast engorgement, breast enlargement, carcinoma in situ cervix, fibrocystic breast, kidney calculus, nocturia, ovarian cyst, priapism, pyelonephritis, abnormal sexual function, and urethritis.
COPAXONE 40 mg per mL three times per week
Among 943 patients treated with COPAXONE 40 mg per mL three times per week in a blinded, placebo-controlled trial, approximately 3% of the subjects discontinued treatment because of an adverse reaction. The most common adverse reactions were injection site reactions, which were also the most common cause of discontinuation.
Table 2 lists treatment-emergent signs and symptoms that occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with COPAXONE 40 mg per mL in the blinded, placebo-controlled trial. These signs and symptoms were numerically more common in patients treated with COPAXONE 40 mg per mL than in patients treated with placebo. Adverse reactions were usually mild in intensity.
Table 2: Adverse reactions in a controlled clinical
trial with an incidence ≥ 2% of patients and more frequent with COPAXONE
(40 mg per mL three times per week) than with placebo
|COPAXONE 40 mg/mL
|General Disorders And Administration Site Conditions||Injection Site Erythema||22%||2%|
|Injection Site Pain||10%||2%|
|Injection Site Mass||6%||0%|
|Injection Site Pruritus||6%||0%|
|Injection Site Edema||6%||0%|
|Injection Site Inflammation||2%||0%|
|Infections And Infestations||Nasopharyngitis||11%||9%|
|Respiratory Tract Infection Viral||3%||2%|
|Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders||Dyspnea||3%||0%|
|Skin And Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders||Erythema||2%||0%|
No new adverse reactions appeared in subjects treated with COPAXONE 40 mg per mL three times per week as compared to subjects treated with COPAXONE 20 mg per mL per day in clinical trials and during postmarketing experience. Data on adverse reactions occurring in the controlled clinical trial of COPAXONE 40 mg per mL were analyzed to evaluate differences based on sex. No clinically significant differences were identified. Ninety-eight percent of patients in this clinical trial were Caucasian and the majority were between the ages of 18 and 50. Consequently, data are inadequate to perform an analysis of the adverse reaction incidence related to clinically-relevant age groups.
The following adverse events occurring under treatment with COPAXONE 20 mg per mL since market introduction and not mentioned above have been identified during postapproval use of COPAXONE. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cardiovascular System: thrombosis; peripheral vascular disease; pericardial effusion; myocardial infarct; deep thrombophlebitis; coronary occlusion; congestive heart failure; cardiomyopathy; cardiomegaly; arrhythmia; angina pectoris
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: hypercholesterolemia
Musculoskeletal System: rheumatoid arthritis; generalized spasm
Special Senses: glaucoma; blindness
Read the Copaxone (glatiramer acetate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Interactions between COPAXONE and other drugs have not been fully evaluated. Results from existing clinical trials do not suggest any significant interactions of COPAXONE with therapies commonly used in MS patients, including the concurrent use of corticosteroids for up to 28 days. COPAXONE has not been formally evaluated in combination with interferon beta.
Read the Copaxone Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/28/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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