Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (cont.)
Daniel Lee Kulick, MD, FACC, FSCAI
Dr. Kulick received his undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Southern California, School of Medicine. He performed his residency in internal medicine at the Harbor-University of California Los Angeles Medical Center and a fellowship in the section of cardiology at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center. He is board certified in Internal Medicine and Cardiology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What is coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery?
- How does coronary artery disease develop?
- How is coronary artery disease diagnosed?
- How is coronary artery disease (CAD) treated?
- How is CABG surgery done?
- How do patients recover after CABG surgery?
- What are the risks and complications of CABG surgery?
- What are the long-term results after CABG surgery?
- How do CABG surgery and PTCA (angioplasty) compare?
- Coronary Artery Bypass Graft At A Glance
- Find a local Cardiothoracic Surgeon in your town
How is coronary artery disease diagnosed?
The resting electrocardiogram (EKG) is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart, and can demonstrate signs of oxygen starvation of the heart (ischemia) or heart attack. Often, the resting EKG is normal in patients with coronary artery disease and angina. Exercise treadmill tests are useful screening tests for patients with a moderate likelihood of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and a normal resting EKG. These stress tests are about 60 to 70% accurate in diagnosing significant CAD.
If the stress tests do not reveal the diagnosis, greater accuracy can be achieved by adding a nuclear agent (thallium or Cardiolite) intravenously during stress tests. Addition of thallium allows nuclear imaging of the blood flow to different regions of the heart, using an external camera. An area of the heart with reduced blood flow during exercise, but normal blood flow at rest, signifies significant artery narrowing in that region.
Learn more about: Cardiolite
Combining echocardiography (ultrasound imaging of the heart muscle) with exercise stress testing (stress echocardiography) is also a very accurate technique to detect CAD. When a significant blockage exists, the heart muscle supplied by this artery does not contract as well as the rest of the heart muscle. Stress echocardiography and thallium stress tests are both at least 80% to 85% accurate in detecting significant coronary artery disease.
When a patient cannot undergo exercise stress test because of nervous system or joint problems, medications can be injected intravenously to simulate the stress on the heart due to exercise and imaging can be performed with a nuclear camera or ultrasound.
Cardiac catheterization with angiography (coronary arteriography) is the most accurate test to detect coronary artery narrowing. Small hollow plastic tubes (catheters) are advanced under x-ray guidance to the openings of the two main heart arteries (left and right). Iodine contrast, "dye," is then injected into the arteries while an x-ray video is recorded. Sometimes, an exercise study is then done to determine whether a moderate narrowing (40 - 60%) is actually causing ischemia and, therefore, requires treatment.
A newer modality, high speed CT scanning angiography has recently become available. This procedure uses powerful x-ray methods to visualize the arteries to the heart. Its role in the evaluation of CAD is currently being evaluated. For more, please read the CT Scanning Angiography article.
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