Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (cont.)
Daniel Lee Kulick, MD, FACC, FSCAI
Dr. Kulick received his undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Southern California, School of Medicine. He performed his residency in internal medicine at the Harbor-University of California Los Angeles Medical Center and a fellowship in the section of cardiology at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center. He is board certified in Internal Medicine and Cardiology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What is coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery?
- How does coronary artery disease develop?
- How is coronary artery disease diagnosed?
- How is coronary artery disease (CAD) treated?
- How is CABG surgery done?
- How do patients recover after CABG surgery?
- What are the risks and complications of CABG surgery?
- What are the long-term results after CABG surgery?
- How do CABG surgery and PTCA (angioplasty) compare?
- Coronary Artery Bypass Graft At A Glance
- Find a local Cardiothoracic Surgeon in your town
How is coronary artery disease (CAD) treated?
Medicines used to treat angina reduce the heart muscle demand for oxygen in order to compensate for the reduced blood supply. Three commonly used classes of drugs are the nitrates, beta blockers and calcium blockers. Nitroglycerin (Nitro-Bid) is an example of a nitrate. Examples of beta blockers include propranolol (Inderal) and atenolol (Tenormin). Examples of calcium blockers include nicardipine (Cardene) and nifedipine (Procardia, Adalat). Unstable angina is also treated with aspirin and the intravenous blood thinner heparin. Aspirin prevents clumping of platelets, while heparin prevents blood clotting on the surface of plaques in a critically narrowed artery. When patients continue to have angina despite maximum medications, or when significant ischemia still occurs with exercise testing, coronary arteriography is usually indicated. Data collected during coronary arteriography help doctors decide whether the patient should be considered for percutaneous coronary intervention, or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA), whereby a small balloon is used to inflate the blockage. Angioplasty (PTCA) is usually followed by placement of a stent or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) to increase coronary artery blood flow.
Angioplasty can produce excellent results in carefully selected patients. Under x-ray guidance, a wire is advanced from the groin to the coronary artery. A small catheter with a balloon at the end is threaded over the wire to reach the narrowed segment. The balloon is then inflated to push the artery open, and a steel mesh stent is generally inserted.
CABG surgery is performed to relieve angina in patients who have failed medical therapy and are not good candidates for angioplasty (PTCA). CABG surgery is ideal for patients with multiple narrowings in multiple coronary artery branches, such as is often seen in patients with diabetes. CABG surgery has been shown to improve long-term survival in patients with significant narrowing of the left main coronary artery, and in patients with significant narrowing of multiple arteries, especially in those with decreased heart muscle pump function.
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