"Researchers are making progress toward understanding how some cases of glaucoma begin. A new study from the National Eye Institute reveals that myocilin—a protein linked to a significant fraction of glaucoma—is needed to insulate peri"...
COSOPT (dorzolamide hydrochloride-timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) was evaluated for safety in 1035 patients with elevated intraocular pressure treated for open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Approximately 5% of all patients discontinued therapy with COSOPT (dorzolamide hydrochloride-timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) because of adverse reactions. The most frequently reported adverse events were taste perversion (bitter, sour, or unusual taste) or ocular burning and/or stinging in up to 30% of patients. Conjunctival hyperemia, blurred vision, superficial punctate keratitis or eye itching were reported between 5-15% of patients. The following adverse events were reported in 1-5% of patients: abdominal pain, back pain, blepharitis, bronchitis, cloudy vision, conjunctival discharge,conjunctival edema, conjunctival follicles, conjunctival injection, conjunctivitis, corneal erosion, corneal staining, cortical lens opacity, cough, dizziness, dryness of eyes, dyspepsia, eye debris, eye discharge, eye pain, eye tearing, eyelid edema, eyelid erythema, eyelid exudate/scales, eyelid pain or discomfort, foreign body sensation, glaucomatous cupping, headache, hypertension, influenza, lens nucleus coloration, lens opacity, nausea, nuclear lens opacity, pharyngitis, post-subcapsular cataract, sinusitis, upper respiratory infection, urinary tract infection, visual field defect, vitreous detachment.
The following adverse events have occurred either at low incidence ( < 1%) during clinical trials or have been reported during the use of COSOPT (dorzolamide hydrochloride-timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) in clinical practice where these events were reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size and frequency of occurrence cannot be determined precisely. They have been chosen for inclusion based on factors such as seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to COSOPT (dorzolamide hydrochloride-timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) , or a combination of these factors: bradycardia, cardiac failure, cerebral vascular accident, chest pain, choroidal detachment following filtration surgery (see PRECAUTIONS, General), depression, diarrhea, dry mouth, dyspnea, heart block, hypotension, iridocyclitis, myocardial infarction, nasal congestion, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, paresthesia, photophobia, respiratory failure, skin rashes, urolithiasis, and vomiting.
Other adverse reactions that have been reported with the individual components are listed below:
Allergic/Hypersensitivity: Signs and symptoms of local reactions including palpebral reactions and systemic allergic reactions including angioedema, bronchospasm, pruritus, urticaria; Body as a Whole: Asthenia/fatigue; Skin/Mucous Membranes: Contact dermatitis, epistaxis, throat irritation; Special Senses: Eyelid crusting, signs and symptoms of ocular allergic reaction, and transient myopia.
Timolol (ocular administration)
Body as a Whole: Asthenia/fatigue; Cardiovascular: Arrhythmia, syncope, cerebral ischemia, worsening of angina pectoris, palpitation, cardiac arrest, pulmonary edema, edema, claudication, Raynaud's phenomenon, and cold hands and feet; Digestive: Anorexia; Immunologic: Systemic lupus erythematosus; Nervous System/Psychiatric: Increase in signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis, somnolence, insomnia, nightmares, behavioral changes and psychic disturbances including confusion, hallucinations, anxiety, disorientation, nervousness, and memory loss; Skin: Alopecia, psoriasiform rash or exacerbation of psoriasis; Hypersensitivity: Signs and symptoms of systemic allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria, and localized and generalized rash; Respiratory: Bronchospasm (predominantly in patients with pre-existing bronchospastic disease); Endocrine: Masked symptoms of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients (see WARNINGS); Special Senses: Ptosis, decreased corneal sensitivity, cystoid macular edema, visual disturbances including refractive changes and diplopia, pseudopemphigoid, and tinnitus; Urogenital: Retroperitoneal fibrosis, decreased libido, impotence, and Peyronie's disease.
The following additional adverse effects have been reported in clinical experience with ORAL timolol maleate or other ORAL beta-blocking agents and may be considered potential effects of ophthalmic timolol maleate: Allergic: Erythematous rash, fever combined with aching and sore throat, laryngospasm with respiratory distress; Body as a Whole: Extremity pain, decreased exercise tolerance, weight loss; Cardiovascular: Worsening of arterial insufficiency, vasodilatation; Digestive: Gastrointestinal pain, hepatoemgaly, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, ischemic colitis; Hematologic: Nonthrombocytopenic purpura; thrombocytopenic purpura, agranulocytosis; Endocrine: Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia; Skin: Pruritus, skin irritation, increased pigmentation, sweating; Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia; Nervous System/Psychiatric: Vertigo, local weakness, diminished concentration, reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia, an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics; Respiratory: Rales, bronchial obstruction; Urogenital: Urination difficulties.
Read the Cosopt (dorzolamide hydrochloride-timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: There is a potential for an additive effect on the known systemic effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition in patients receiving an oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and COSOPT (dorzolamide hydrochloride-timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) . The concomitant administration of COSOPT (dorzolamide hydrochloride-timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is not recommended.
Acid-base disturbances: Although acid-base and electrolyte disturbances were not reported in the clinical trials with dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution, these disturbances have been reported with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and have, in some instances, resulted in drug interactions (e.g., toxicity associated with high-dose salicylate therapy). Therefore, the potential for such drug interactions should be considered in patients receiving COSOPT (dorzolamide hydrochloride-timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) .
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents: Patients who are receiving a beta-adrenergic blocking agent orally and COSOPT (dorzolamide hydrochloride-timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) should be observed for potential additive effects of beta-blockade, both systemic and on intraocular pressure. The concomitant use of two topical beta-adrenergic blocking agents is not recommended.
Calcium antagonists: Caution should be used in the coadministration of beta-adrenergic blocking agents, such as COSOPT (dorzolamide hydrochloride-timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) , and oral or intravenous calcium antagonists because of possible atrioventricular conduction disturbances, left ventricular failure, and hypotension. In patients with impaired cardiac function, coadministration should be avoided.
Catecholamine-depleting drugs: Close observation of the patient is recommended when a beta-blocker is administered to patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs such as reserpine, because of possible additive effects and the production of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia, which may result in vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension.
Digitalis and calcium antagonists: The concomitant use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents with digitalis and calcium antagonists may have additive effects in prolonging atrioventricular conduction time.
CYP2D6 inhibitors: Potentiated systemic beta-blockade (e.g., decreased heart rate, depression) has been reported during combined treatment with CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g., quinidine, SSRIs) and timolol.
Clonidine: Oral beta-adrenergic blocking agents may exacerbate the rebound hypertension which can follow the withdrawal of clonidine. There have been no reports of exacerbation of rebound hypertension with ophthalmic timolol maleate.
Injectable Epinephrine: (See PRECAUTIONS, General, Anaphylaxis.)
Read the Cosopt Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/20/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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