"Drug Side Effects: Types
Side effects fall into several categories. Allergic reactions can happen with any drug and can range from itching and rash all the way up to a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction.
Other side ef"...
The following serious adverse reactions to COUMADIN are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Hemorrhage [see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and OVERDOSAGE]
- Necrosis of skin and other tissues [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Systemic atheroemboli and cholesterol microemboli [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Other adverse reactions to COUMADIN include:
- Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity/allergic reactions (including urticaria and anaphylactic reactions)
- Vascular disorders: vasculitis
- Hepatobiliary disorders: hepatitis, elevated liver enzymes. Cholestatic hepatitis has been associated with concomitant administration of COUMADIN and ticlopidine.
- Gastrointestinal disorders: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, taste perversion, abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating
- Skin disorders: rash, dermatitis (including bullous eruptions), pruritus, alopecia
- Respiratory disorders: tracheal or tracheobronchial calcification
- General disorders: chills
Read the Coumadin (warfarin sodium) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Drugs may interact with COUMADIN through pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic mechanisms. Pharmacodynamic mechanisms for drug interactions with COUMADIN are synergism (impaired hemostasis, reduced clotting factor synthesis), competitive antagonism (vitamin K), and alteration of the physiologic control loop for vitamin K metabolism (hereditary resistance). Pharmacokinetic mechanisms for drug interactions with COUMADIN are mainly enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, and reduced plasma protein binding. It is important to note that some drugs may interact by more than one mechanism.
More frequent INR monitoring should be performed when starting or stopping other drugs, including botanicals, or when changing dosages of other drugs, including drugs intended for short-term use (e.g., antibiotics, antifungals, corticosteroids) [see BOXED WARNING]. Consult the labeling of all concurrently used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with COUMADIN or adverse reactions pertaining to bleeding.
CYP450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of warfarin include CYP2C9, 2C19, 2C8, 2C18, 1A2, and 3A4. The more potent warfarin S-enantiomer is metabolized by CYP2C9 while the R-enantiomer is metabolized by CYP1A2 and 3A4.
- Inhibitors of CYP2C9, 1A2, and/or 3A4 have the potential to increase the effect (increase INR) of warfarin by increasing the exposure of warfarin.
- Inducers of CYP2C9, 1A2, and/or 3A4 have the potential to decrease the effect (decrease INR) of warfarin by decreasing the exposure of warfarin.
Examples of inhibitors and inducers of CYP2C9, 1A2, and 3A4 are below in Table 2; however, this list should not be considered all-inclusive. Consult the labeling of all concurrently used drugs to obtain further information about CYP450 interaction potential. The CYP450 inhibition and induction potential should be considered when starting, stopping, or changing dose of concomitant medications. Closely monitor INR if a concomitant drug is a CYP2C9, 1A2, and/or 3A4 inhibitor or inducer.
Table 2: Examples of CYP450 Interactions with Warfarin
|CYP2C9||amiodarone, capecitabine, cotrimoxazole, etravirine, fluconazole, fluvastatin, fluvoxamine, metronidazole, miconazole, oxandrolone, sulfinpyrazone, tigecycline, voriconazole, zafirlukast||aprepitant, bosentan, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, rifampin|
|CYP1A2||acyclovir, allopurinol, caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, disulfiram, enoxacin, famotidine, fluvoxamine, methoxsalen, mexiletine, norfloxacin, oral contraceptives, phenylpropanolamine, propafenone, propranolol, terbinafine, thiabendazole, ticlopidine, verapamil, zileuton||montelukast, moricizine, omeprazole, phenobarbital, phenytoin, cigarette smoking|
|CYP3A4||alprazolam, amiodarone, amlodipine, amprenavir, aprepitant, atorvastatin, atazanavir, bicalutamide, cilostazol, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, conivaptan, cyclosporine, darunavir/ritonavir, diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, fosamprenavir, imatinib, indinavir, isoniazid, itraconazole, ketoconazole, lopinavir/ritonavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, nilotinib, oral contraceptives, posaconazole, ranitidine, ranolazine, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, tipranavir, voriconazole, zileuton||armodafinil, amprenavir, aprepitant, bosentan, carbamazepine, efavirenz, etravirine, modafinil, nafcillin, phenytoin, pioglitazone, prednisone, rifampin, rufinamide|
Drugs That Increase Bleeding Risk
Examples of drugs known to increase the risk of bleeding are presented in Table 3. Because bleeding risk is increased when these drugs are used concomitantly with warfarin, closely monitor patients receiving any such drug with warfarin.
Table 3: Drugs that Can Increase the Risk of Bleeding
|Drug Class||Specific Drugs|
|Anticoagulants||argatroban, dabigatran, bivalirudin, desirudin, heparin, lepirudin|
|Antiplatelet Agents||aspirin, cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, prasugrel, ticlopidine|
|Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents||celecoxib, diclofenac, diflunisal, fenoprofen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, ketorolac, mefenamic acid, naproxen, oxaprozin, piroxicam, sulindac|
|Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors||citalopram, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, milnacipran, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, vilazodone|
Antibiotics And Antifungals
There have been reports of changes in INR in patients taking warfarin and antibiotics or antifungals, but clinical pharmacokinetic studies have not shown consistent effects of these agents on plasma concentrations of warfarin.
Botanical (Herbal) Products And Foods
More frequent INR monitoring should be performed when starting or stopping botanicals.
Few adequate, well-controlled studies evaluating the potential for metabolic and/or pharmacologic interactions between botanicals and COUMADIN exist. Due to a lack of manufacturing standardization with botanical medicinal preparations, the amount of active ingredients may vary. This could further confound the ability to assess potential interactions and effects on anticoagulation.
Some botanicals may cause bleeding events when taken alone (e.g., garlic and Ginkgo biloba) and may have anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and/or fibrinolytic properties. These effects would be expected to be additive to the anticoagulant effects of COUMADIN. Conversely, some botanicals may decrease the effects of COUMADIN (e.g., co-enzyme Q10, St. John's wort, ginseng). Some botanicals and foods can interact with COUMADIN through CYP450 interactions (e.g., echinacea, grapefruit juice, ginkgo, goldenseal, St. John's wort).
The amount of vitamin K in food may affect therapy with COUMADIN. Advise patients taking COUMADIN to eat a normal, balanced diet maintaining a consistent amount of vitamin K. Patients taking COUMADIN should avoid drastic changes in dietary habits, such as eating large amounts of green leafy vegetables.
Read the Coumadin Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/8/2016
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