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Skeletal Muscle Effects
Cases of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including CRESTOR. These risks can occur at any dose level, but are increased at the highest dose (40 mg).
The risk of myopathy during treatment with CRESTOR may be increased with concurrent administration of some other lipid-lowering therapies (fibrates or niacin), gemfibrozil, cyclosporine, lopinavir/ritonavir, or atazanavir/ritonavir [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
CRESTOR therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated creatine kinase levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. CRESTOR therapy should also be temporarily withheld in any patient with an acute, serious condition suggestive of myopathy or predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis (e.g., sepsis, hypotension, dehydration, major surgery, trauma, severe metabolic, endocrine, and electrolyte disorders, or uncontrolled seizures).
There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation; improvement with immunosuppressive agents.
All patients should be advised to promptly report to their physician unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing CRESTOR.
Liver Enzyme Abnormalities
It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation of CRESTOR, and if signs or symptoms of liver injury occur.
Increases in serum transaminases [AST (SGOT) or ALT (SGPT)] have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including CRESTOR. In most cases, the elevations were transient and resolved or improved on continued therapy or after a brief interruption in therapy. There were two cases of jaundice, for which a relationship to CRESTOR therapy could not be determined, which resolved after discontinuation of therapy. There were no cases of liver failure or irreversible liver disease in these trials.
In a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials, increases in serum transaminases to > 3 times the upper limit of normal occurred in 1.1% of patients taking CRESTOR versus 0.5% of patients treated with placebo.
There have been rare post marketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including rosuvastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with CRESTOR, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found, do not restart CRESTOR. CRESTOR should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol and/or have a history of chronic liver disease [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent transaminase elevations, is a contraindication to the use of CRESTOR[see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Concomitant Coumarin Anticoagulants
Caution should be exercised when anticoagulants are given in conjunction with CRESTOR because of its potentiation of the effect of coumarin-type anticoagulants in prolonging the prothrombin time/INR. In patients taking coumarin anticoagulants and CRESTOR concomitantly, INR should be determined before starting CRESTOR and frequently enough during early therapy to ensure that no significant alteration of INR occurs [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Proteinuria and Hematuria
In the CRESTOR clinical trial program, dipstick-positive proteinuria and microscopic hematuria were observed among CRESTOR treated patients. These findings were more frequent in patients taking CRESTOR 40 mg, when compared to lower doses of CRESTOR or comparator HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, though it was generally transient and was not associated with worsening renal function. Although the clinical significance of this finding is unknown, a dose reduction should be considered for patients on CRESTOR therapy with unexplained persistent proteinuria and/or hematuria during routine urinalysis testing.
Increases in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose levels have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including CRESTOR [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Although clinical studies have shown that CRESTOR alone does not reduce basal plasma cortisol concentration or impair adrenal reserve, caution should be exercised if CRESTOR is administered concomitantly with drugs that may decrease the levels or activity of endogenous steroid hormones such as ketoconazole, spironolactone, and cimetidine.
Patient Counseling Information
Skeletal Muscle Effects
Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if these muscle signs or symptoms persist after discontinuing CRESTOR.
Concomitant Use of Antacids
When taking CRESTOR with an aluminum and magnesium hydroxide combination antacid, the antacid should be taken at least 2 hours after CRESTOR administration.
If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus and the lack of known clinical benefit with continued use during pregnancy.
It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation of CRESTOR and if signs or symptoms of liver injury occur. All patients treated with CRESTOR should be advised to promptly report any symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine or jaundice.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in rats at dose levels of 2, 20, 60, or 80 mg/kg/day by oral gavage, the incidence of uterine stromal polyps was significantly increased in females at 80 mg/kg/day at systemic exposure 20 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC. Increased incidence of polyps was not seen at lower doses.
In a 107-week carcinogenicity study in mice given 10, 60, 200 mg/kg/day by oral gavage, an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma was observed at 200 mg/kg/day at systemic exposures 20 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC. An increased incidence of hepatocellular tumors was not seen at lower doses.
Rosuvastatin was not mutagenic or clastogenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, the mouse lymphoma assay, and the chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster lung cells. Rosuvastatin was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
In rat fertility studies with oral gavage doses of 5, 15, 50 mg/kg/day, males were treated for 9 weeks prior to and throughout mating and females were treated 2 weeks prior to mating and throughout mating until gestation day 7. No adverse effect on fertility was observed at 50 mg/kg/day (systemic exposures up to 10 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC). In testicles of dogs treated with rosuvastatin at 30 mg/kg/day for one month, spermatidic giant cells were seen. Spermatidic giant cells were observed in monkeys after 6-month treatment at 30 mg/kg/day in addition to vacuolation of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Exposures in the dog were 20 times and in the monkey 10 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on body surface area. Similar findings have been seen with other drugs in this class.
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic effects: Pregnancy Category X.
CRESTOR is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides increase during normal pregnancy, and cholesterol products are essential for fetal development. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on long-term outcomes of primary hyperlipidemia therapy [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CRESTOR in pregnant women. There have been rare reports of congenital anomalies following intrauterine exposure to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. In a review of about 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed the rate expected in the general population. However, this study was only able to exclude a three-to-fourfold increased risk of congenital anomalies over background incidence. In 89% of these cases, drug treatment started before pregnancy and stopped during the first trimester when pregnancy was identified.
Rosuvastatin crosses the placenta in rats and rabbits. In rats, CRESTOR was not teratogenic at systemic exposures equivalent to a human therapeutic dose of 40 mg/day. At 10-12 times the human dose of 40 mg/day, there was decreased pup survival, decreased fetal body weight among female pups, and delayed ossification. In rabbits, pup viability decreased and maternal mortality increased at doses equivalent to the human dose of 40 mg/day [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
CRESTOR may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking CRESTOR, the patient should be apprised of the potential risks to the fetus and the lack of known clinical benefit with continued use during pregnancy.
It is not known whether rosuvastatin is excreted in human milk, but a small amount of another drug in this class does pass into breast milk. In rats, breast milk concentrations of rosuvastatin are three times higher than plasma levels; however, animal breast milk drug levels may not accurately reflect human breast milk levels. Because another drug in this class passes into human milk and because HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have a potential to cause serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women who require CRESTOR treatment should be advised not to nurse their infants [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
The safety and effectiveness of CRESTOR in patients 10 to 17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were evaluated in a controlled clinical trial of 12 weeks duration followed by 40 weeks of open-label exposure. Patients treated with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg daily CRESTOR had an adverse experience profile generally similar to that of patients treated with placebo [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Although not all adverse reactions identified in the adult population have been observed in clinical trials of children and adolescent patients, the same WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS for adults should be considered for children and adolescents. There was no detectable effect of CRESTOR on growth, weight, BMI (body mass index), or sexual maturation [see Clinical Studies] in pediatric patients (10 to 17 years of age). Adolescent females should be counseled on appropriate contraceptive methods while on CRESTOR therapy [see Use In Specific Populations]. CRESTOR has not been studied in controlled clinical trials involving prepubertal patients or patients younger than 10 years of age. Doses of CRESTOR greater than 20 mg have not been studied in the pediatric population.
In children and adolescents with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia experience is limited to eight patients (aged 8 years and above).
In a pharmacokinetic study, 18 patients (9 boys and 9 girls) 10 to 17 years of age with heterozygous FH received single and multiple oral doses of CRESTOR. Both Cmax and AUC of rosuvastatin were similar to values observed in adult subjects administered the same doses.
Of the 10,275 patients in clinical studies with CRESTOR, 3159 (31%) were 65 years and older, and 698 (6.8%) were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Elderly patients are at higher risk of myopathy and CRESTOR should be prescribed with caution in the elderly [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Rosuvastatin exposure is not influenced by mild to 2 renal impairment (CLcr ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m); moderatehowever, exposure to rosuvastatin is increased to a clinically significant extent in patients with severe renal impairment who are not receiving hemodialysis. CRESTOR dosing should be adjusted in patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min/1.73 m²) not requiring hemodialysis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
CRESTOR is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent elevations of hepatic transaminase levels. Chronic alcohol liver disease is known to increase rosuvastatin exposure; CRESTOR should be used with caution in these patients [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNING AND PRECAUTIONS, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated an approximate 2-fold increase in median exposure to rosuvastatin in Asian subjects when compared with Caucasian controls. CRESTOR dosage should be adjusted in Asian patients [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/9/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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