Crohn's Disease (cont.)
In this Article
- Crohn's disease facts
- What is Crohn's disease?
- What causes Crohn's disease?
- How does Crohn's disease affect the intestines?
- How is Crohn's disease different from ulcerative colitis?
- What are the symptoms of Crohn's disease?
- What are the complications of Crohn's disease?
- How is Crohn's disease diagnosed?
- How is Crohn's disease treated?
- Crohn's Disease Medications
- Anti-inflammatory medications
- 5-ASA (mesalamine) oral medications
- 5-ASA rectal medications (Rowasa, Canasa)
- Budesonide (Entocort EC)
- Immuno-modulator medications
- Azathioprine (Imuran) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP, Purinethol)
- Infliximab (Remicade)
- Adalimumab (Humira)
- Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia)
- Natalizumab (Tysabri)
- Surgery in Crohn's disease
- Are there any recommendations for diet and supplementation for Crohn's disease?
- View the Crohn's Disease Slideshow
- Crohn's Disease Quiz
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Slideshow
- Crohn's Disease FAQs
- Find a local Gastroenterologist in your town
What are the complications of Crohn's disease?
Complications of Crohn's disease may be related or unrelated to the inflammation within the intestine. Intestinal complications of Crohn's disease include:
- obstruction and perforation of the small intestine,
- abscesses (collections of pus),
- fistulae, and
- intestinal bleeding.
Massive distention or dilatation of the colon (megacolon), and rupture (perforation) of the intestine are potentially life-threatening complications. Both generally require surgery, but, fortunately, these two complications are rare. Recent data suggest that there is an increased risk of cancer of the small intestine and colon in patients with long-standing Crohn's disease.
Extra-intestinal complications involve the skin, joints, spine, eyes, liver, and bile ducts.
Skin involvement includes painful red raised spots on the legs (erythema nodosum) and an ulcerating skin condition generally found around the ankles called pyoderma gangrenosum.
Painful eye conditions (uveitis, episcleritis) can cause visual difficulties.
Arthritis can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness of the joints of the extremities.
Inflammation of the low back (sacroiliac joint arthritis) and of the spine (ankylosing spondylitis) can cause pain and stiffness of the spine.
Inflammation of the liver (hepatitis) or bile ducts (primary sclerosing cholangitis) also can occur. Sclerosing cholangitis causes narrowing and obstruction of the bile ducts draining the liver and can lead to yellow skin (jaundice), recurrent bacterial infections, and liver cirrhosis with liver failure. Sclerosing cholangitis with liver failure is one of the reasons for performing liver transplantation. It also is frequently complicated by the development of cancer of the bile ducts. Patients with Crohn's disease might also suffer from an increased tendency to form blood clots (hypercoagulability).
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