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Cymbalta

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Cymbalta

SIDE EFFECTS

Clinical Trial Data Sources

The data described below reflect exposure to duloxetine in placebo-controlled trials for MDD (N=2489), GAD (N=910), OA (N=239), CLBP (N=600), DPNP (N=906), and FM (N=876). The population studied was 17 to 91 years of age; 65.5%, 62.5%, 61.5%, 42.9%, and 94.9 % female; and 86.5%, 81.2%, 86.2%, 74.0%, and 88% Caucasian for MDD, GAD, OA and CLBP, DPNP, and FM, respectively. Most patients received doses of a total of 60 to 120 mg per day [see Clinical Studies].

The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. Reactions reported during the studies were not necessarily caused by the therapy, and the frequencies do not reflect investigator impression (assessment) of causality.

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adverse Reactions Reported As Reasons For Discontinuation Of Treatment In Placebo-Controlled Trials

Major Depressive Disorder

Approximately 9% (209/2327) of the patients who received duloxetine in placebocontrolled trials for MDD discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 4.7% (68/1460) of the patients receiving placebo. Nausea (duloxetine 1.3%, placebo 0.5%) was the only common adverse reaction reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (i.e., discontinuation occurring in at least 1% of the duloxetinetreated patients and at a rate of at least twice that of placebo).

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Approximately 15.3% (102/668) of the patients who received duloxetine in placebo-controlled trials for GAD discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 4.0% (20/495) for placebo. Common adverse reactions reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (as defined above) included nausea (duloxetine 3.7%, placebo 0.2%), and vomiting (duloxetine 1.3%, placebo 0.0%), and dizziness (duloxetine 1.0%, placebo 0.2%).

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

Approximately 12.9% (117/906) of the patients who received duloxetine in placebo-controlled trials for DPNP discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 5.1% (23/448) for placebo. Common adverse reactions reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (as defined above) included nausea (duloxetine 3.5%, placebo 0.7%), dizziness (duloxetine 1.2%, placebo 0.4%), and somnolence (duloxetine 1.1%, placebo 0.0%).

Fibromyalgia

Approximately 19.6% (172/876) of the patients who received duloxetine in 3 to 6 month placebocontrolled trials for FM discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 11.8% (63/535) for placebo. Common adverse reactions reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (as defined above) included nausea (duloxetine 1.9%, placebo 0.7%), somnolence (duloxetine 1.5%, placebo 0.0%), and fatigue (duloxetine 1.3%, placebo 0.2%).

Chronic Pain due to Osteoarthritis

Approximately 16.3% (39/239) of the patients who received duloxetine in 13- week, placebo-controlled trials for chronic pain due to OA discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 5.6% (14/248) for placebo. Common adverse reactions reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (as defined above) included nausea (duloxetine 2.9%, placebo 0.8%) and asthenia (duloxetine 1.3%, placebo 0.0%).

Chronic Low Back Pain

Approximately 16.5% (99/600) of the patients who received duloxetine in 13-week, placebo-controlled trials for CLBP discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 6.3% (28/441) for placebo. Common adverse reactions reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (as defined above) included nausea (duloxetine 3.0%, placebo 0.7%), and somnolence (duloxetine 1.0%, placebo 0.0%).

Most Common Adverse Reactions

Pooled Trials for all Approved Indications

The most commonly observed adverse reactions in Cymbalta-treated patients (incidence of at least 5% and at least twice the incidence in placebo patients) were nausea, dry mouth, somnolence, constipation, decreased appetite, and hyperhidrosis.

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

The most commonly observed adverse reactions in Cymbalta-treated patients (as defined above) were nausea, somnolence, decreased appetite, constipation, hyperhidrosis, and dry mouth.

Fibromyalgia

The most commonly observed adverse reactions in Cymbalta-treated patients (as defined above) were nausea, dry mouth, constipation, somnolence, decreased appetite, hyperhidrosis, and agitation.

Chronic Pain Due To Osteoarthritis

The most commonly observed adverse reactions in Cymbalta-treated patients (as defined above) were nausea, fatigue, and constipation.

Chronic Low Back Pain

The most commonly observed adverse reactions in Cymbalta-treated patients (as defined above) were nausea, dry mouth, insomnia, somnolence, constipation, dizziness, and fatigue.

Adverse Reactions Occurring At An Incidence Of 5% Or More Among Duloxetine-Treated Patients In Placebo-Controlled Trials

Table 2 gives the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse reactions in placebo-controlled trials for approved indications that occurred in 5% or more of patients treated with duloxetine and with an incidence greater than placebo.

Table 2: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions: Incidence of 5% or More in Placebo-Controlled Trials of Approved Indicationsa

Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction
Cymbalta
(N=6020)
Placebo
(N=3962)
Nausea 24 8
Headache 14 13
Dry mouth 13 5
Fatigueb 10 5
Somnolencec,e 10 3
Insomniac,d 10 6
Dizziness 10 5
Constipationc 10 4
Diarrhea 9 6
Decreased appetitec,† 8 2
Hyperhidrosis 7 2
a The inclusion of an event in the table is determined based on the percentages before rounding; however, the percentages displayed in the table are rounded to the nearest integer.
b Also includes asthenia.
c Events for which there was a significant dose-dependent relationship in fixed-dose studies, excluding three MDD studies which did not have a placebo lead-in period or dose titration.
d Also includes middle insomnia, early morning awakening, and initial insomnia.
e Also includes hypersomnia and sedation.
f Also includes anorexia.

Adverse Reactions Occurring At An Incidence Of 2% Or More Among Duloxetine-Treated Patients In Placebo-Controlled Trials

Pooled MDD and GAD Trials

Table 3 gives the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse reactions in MDD and GAD placebo-controlled trials for approved indications that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with duloxetine and with an incidence greater than placebo.

Table 3: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions: Incidence of 2% or More in MDD and GAD Placebo-Controlled Trialsa

System Organ Class / Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction
Cymbalta
(N=2995)
Placebo
(N=1955)
Cardiac Disorders
Palpitations 2 2
Eye Disorders    
Vision blurred 3 2
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Nausea 25 9
Dry mouth 15 6
Diarrhea 10 7
Constipationb 10 4
Abdominal painc 4 4
Vomiting 5 2
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
Fatigued 10 6
Investigations
Weight decreasedb 2 < 1
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
Decreased appetitee 7 2
Nervous System Disorders
Dizziness 10 6
Somnolence† 10 4
Tremor 3 < 1
Psychiatric Disorders
Insomniag 10 6
Agitationh 5 3
Anxiety 3 2
Libido decreasedl 4 1
Orgasm abnormalb,j 3 < 1
Abnormal dreamsk 2 1
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders
Erectile dysfunctionl 4 1
Ejaculation delayedb,l 3 < 1
Ejaculation disorderl,m 2 < 1
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders
Yawning 2 < 1
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Hyperhidrosis 6 2
Vascular Disorders
Hot Flush 2 < 1
a The inclusion of an event in the table is determined based on the percentages before rounding; however, the percentages displayed in the table are rounded to the nearest integer.
b Events for which there was a significant dose-dependent relationship in fixed-dose studies, excluding three MDD studies which did not have a placebo lead-in period or dose titration.
c Also includes abdominal pain upper, abdominal pain lower, abdominal tenderness, abdominal discomfort, and gastrointestinal pain
d Also includes asthenia
e Also includes anorexia
f Also includes hypersomnia and sedation
g Also includes middle insomnia, early morning awakening and initial insomnia
h Also includes feeling jittery, nervousness, restlessness, tension and psychomotor agitation
i Also includes loss of libido
j Also includes anorgasmia
k Also includes nightmare
l Male patients only
m Also includes ejaculation failure and ejaculation dysfunction

DPNP, FM, OA, and CLBP

Table 4 gives the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with Cymbalta (determined prior to rounding) in the premarketing acute phase of DPNP, FM, OA, and CLBP placebo-controlled trials and with an incidence greater than placebo.

Table 4: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions: Incidence of 2% or More in DPNP, FM, OA, and CLBP Placebo- Controlled Trialsa

System Organ Class / Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction
Cymbalta
(N=2621)
Placebo
(N=1672)
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Nausea 23 7
Dry Mouthb 11 3
Constipationb 10 3
Diarrhea 9 6
Abdominal Painc 6 5
Vomiting 3 2
Dyspepsiad 2 1
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
Fatiguee 11 5
Infections and Infestations
Nasopharyngitis 5 4
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 4 4
Influenza 3 2
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
Decreased Appetiteb,† 9 1
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue
Musculoskeletal Painb,g 4 4
Muscle Spasms 3 2
Nervous System Disorders
Headache 13 9
Somnolenceb,h 12 3
Dizziness 10 5
Paraesthesial 2 2
Tremorb 2 < 1
Psychiatric Disorders
Insomniab,j 10 6
Agitationk 3 < 1
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders
Erectile Dysfunctionb,j 4 < 1
Ejaculation Disorderm 2 < 1
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders
Cough 3 2
Oropharyngeal Painb 2 2
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Hyperhidrosis 6 1
Vascular Disorders
Flushingn 3 1
a The inclusion of an event in the table is determined based on the percentages before rounding; however, the percentages displayed in the table are rounded to the nearest integer.
b Incidence of 120 mg/day is significantly greater than the incidence for 60 mg/day.
c Also includes abdominal discomfort, abdominal pain lower, abdominal pain upper, abdominal tenderness and gastrointestinal pain
d Also includes stomach discomfort
e Also includes asthenia
f Also includes anorexia
g Also includes myalgia and neck pain
h Also includes hypersomnia and sedation
i Also includes hypoaesthesia, hypoaesthesia facial and paraesthesia oral
j Also includes middle insomnia, early morning awakening and initial insomnia
k Also includes feeling jittery, nervousness, restlessness, tension and psychomotor hyperactivity
l Male patients only (N=885 for duloxetine, 494 for placebo)
m Male patients only (N=885 for duloxetine, 494 for placebo). Also includes ejaculation failure
n Also includes hot flush

Effects On Male And Female Sexual Function

Changes in sexual desire, sexual performance and sexual satisfaction often occur as manifestations of psychiatric disorders or diabetes, but they may also be a consequence of pharmacologic treatment. Because adverse sexual reactions are presumed to be voluntarily underreported, the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), a validated measure designed to identify sexual side effects, was used prospectively in 4 MDD placebo-controlled trials. In these trials, as shown in Table 5 below, patients treated with Cymbalta experienced significantly more sexual dysfunction, as measured by the total score on the ASEX, than did patients treated with placebo. Gender analysis showed that this difference occurred only in males. Males treated with Cymbalta experienced more difficulty with ability to reach orgasm (ASEX Item 4) than males treated with placebo. Females did not experience more sexual dysfunction on Cymbalta than on placebo as measured by ASEX total score. Negative numbers signify an improvement from a baseline level of dysfunction, which is commonly seen in depressed patients. Physicians should routinely inquire about possible sexual side effects.

Table 5: Mean Change in ASEX Scores by Gender in MDD Placebo-Controlled Trials

  Male Patientsa Female Patientsb
Cymbalta
(n=175)
Placebo
(n=83)
Cymbalta
(n=241)
Placebo
(n=126)
ASEX Total (Items 1-5) 0.56b -1.07 -1.15 -1.07
Item 1 — Sex drive -0.07 -0.12 -0.32 -0.24
Item 2 — Arousal 0.01 -0.26 -0.21 -0.18
Item 3 — Ability to achieve erection (men); Lubrication (women) 0.03 -0.25 -0.17 -0.18
Item 4 — Ease of reaching orgasm 0.40c -0.24 -0.09 -0.13
Item 5 — Orgasm satisfaction 0.09 -0.13 -0.11 -0.17
a n=Number of patients with non-missing change score for ASEX total
b p=0.013 versus placebo
c p < 0.001 versus placebo

Vital Sign Changes

In placebo-controlled clinical trials across approved indications for change from baseline to endpoint, duloxetine treatment was associated with mean increases of 0.07 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.62 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure compared to mean decreases of 1.31 mm Hg systolic and 0.73 mm Hg diastolic in placebo-treated patients. There was no significant difference in the frequency of sustained (3 consecutive visits) elevated blood pressure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Duloxetine treatment, for up to 26 weeks in placebo-controlled trials across approved indications, typically caused a small increase in heart rate for change from baseline to endpoint compared to placebo of up to 1.40 beats per minute.

Weight Changes

In placebo-controlled clinical trials, MDD and GAD patients treated with Cymbalta for up to 10 weeks experienced a mean weight loss of approximately 0.5 kg, compared with a mean weight gain of approximately 0.2 kg in placebotreated patients. In studies of DPNP, FM, OA, and CLBP, patients treated with Cymbalta for up to 26 weeks experienced a mean weight loss of approximately 0.6 kg compared with a mean weight gain of approximately 0.2 kg in placebo-treated patients. In one long-term fibromyalgia 60-week uncontrolled study, duloxetine patients had a mean weight increase of 0.7 kg. In one long-term CLBP 54-week study (13-week, placebo-controlled acute phase and 41-week, uncontrolled extension phase), duloxetine patients had a mean weight decrease of 0.6 kg in 13 weeks of acute phase compared to study entry, then a mean weight increase of 1.4 kg in 41 weeks of extension phase compared to end of acute phase.

Laboratory Changes

Cymbalta treatment in placebo-controlled clinical trials across approved indications, was associated with small mean increases from baseline to endpoint in ALT, AST, CPK, and alkaline phosphatase; infrequent, modest, transient, abnormal values were observed for these analytes in Cymbalta-treated patients when compared with placebo-treated patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Electrocardiogram Changes

The effect of duloxetine 160 mg and 200 mg administered twice daily to steady state was evaluated in a randomized, double-blinded, two-way crossover study in 117 healthy female subjects. No QT interval prolongation was detected. Duloxetine appears to be associated with concentration-dependent but not clinically meaningful QT shortening.

Other Adverse Reactions Observed During The Premarketing And Postmarketing Clinical Trial Evaluation Of Duloxetine

Following is a list of treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported by patients treated with duloxetine in clinical trials. In clinical trials of all indications, 29,435 patients were treated with duloxetine. Of these, 30.4% (8953) took duloxetine for at least 6 months, and 14.7% (4317) for at least one year. The following listing is not intended to include reactions (1) already listed in previous tables or elsewhere in labeling, (2) for which a drug cause was remote, (3) which were so general as to be uninformative, (4) which were not considered to have significant clinical implications, or (5) which occurred at a rate equal to or less than placebo.

Reactions are categorized by body system according to the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare reactions are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.

Cardiac Disorders — Frequent: palpitations; Infrequent: myocardial infarction and tachycardia.

Ear and Labyrinth Disorders — Frequent: vertigo; Infrequent: ear pain and tinnitus.

Endocrine Disorders — Infrequent: hypothyroidism.

Eye Disorders — Frequent: vision blurred; Infrequent: diplopia, and visual disturbance.

Gastrointestinal Disorders — Frequent: flatulence; Infrequent: eructation, gastritis, halitosis, and stomatitis; Rare: gastric ulcer, hematochezia, and melena.

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions — Frequent: chills/rigors; Infrequent: feeling abnormal, feeling hot and/or cold, malaise, and thirst; Rare: gait disturbance.

Infections and Infestations — Infrequent: gastroenteritis and laryngitis.

Investigations — Frequent: weight increased; Infrequent: blood cholesterol increased.

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders — Infrequent: dehydration and hyperlipidemia; Rare: dyslipidemia.

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders — Frequent: musculoskeletal pain; Infrequent: muscle tightness and muscle twitching.

Nervous System Disorders — Frequent: dysgeusia, lethargy, and parasthesia/hypoesthesia; Infrequent: disturbance in attention, dyskinesia, myoclonus, and poor quality sleep; Rare: dysarthria.

Psychiatric Disorders — Frequent: abnormal dreams and sleep disorder; Infrequent: apathy, bruxism, disorientation/confusional state, irritability, mood swings, and suicide attempt; Rare: completed suicide.

Renal and Urinary Disorders — Infrequent: dysuria, micturition urgency, nocturia, polyuria, and urine odor abnormal.

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders — Frequent: anorgasmia/orgasm abnormal; Infrequent: menopausal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction.

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders — Frequent: yawning; Infrequent: throat tightness.

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders — Infrequent: cold sweat, dermatitis contact, erythema, increased tendency to bruise, night sweats, and photosensitivity reaction; Rare: ecchymosis.

Vascular Disorders — Frequent: hot flush; Infrequent: flushing, orthostatic hypotension, and peripheral coldness.

Postmarketing Spontaneous Reports

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of Cymbalta. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Adverse reactions reported since market introduction that were temporally related to duloxetine therapy and not mentioned elsewhere in labeling include: anaphylactic reaction, aggression and anger (particularly early in treatment or after treatment discontinuation), angioneurotic edema, angle-closure glaucoma, extrapyramidal disorder, galactorrhea, gynecological bleeding, hallucinations, hyperglycemia, hyperprolactinemia, hypersensitivity, hypertensive crisis, muscle spasm, rash, restless legs syndrome, seizures upon treatment discontinuation, supraventricular arrhythmia, tinnitus (upon treatment discontinuation), trismus, and urticaria.

Read the Cymbalta (duloxetine hcl) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Both CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 are responsible for duloxetine metabolism.

Inhibitors Of CYP1A2

When duloxetine 60 mg was co-administered with fluvoxamine 100 mg, a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor, to male subjects (n=14) duloxetine AUC was increased approximately 6-fold, the Cmax was increased about 2.5-fold, and duloxetine t1/2 was increased approximately 3-fold. Other drugs that inhibit CYP1A2 metabolism include cimetidine and quinolone antimicrobials such as ciprofloxacin and enoxacin [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Inhibitors Of CYP2D6

Concomitant use of duloxetine (40 mg once daily) with paroxetine (20 mg once daily) increased the concentration of duloxetine AUC by about 60%, and greater degrees of inhibition are expected with higher doses of paroxetine. Similar effects would be expected with other potent CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g., fluoxetine, quinidine) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Dual Inhibition Of CYP1A2 And CYP2D6

Concomitant administration of duloxetine 40 mg twice daily with fluvoxamine 100 mg, a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor, to CYP2D6 poor metabolizer subjects (n=14) resulted in a 6-fold increase in duloxetine AUC and Cmax.

Drugs That Interfere With Hemostasis (e.g., NSAIDs, Aspirin, and Warfarin)

Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design that have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SSRIs or SNRIs are co-administered with warfarin. Concomitant administration of warfarin (2-9 mg once daily) under steady state conditions with duloxetine 60 or 120 mg once daily for up to 14 days in healthy subjects (n=15) did not significantly change INR from baseline (mean INR changes ranged from 0.05 to +0.07). The total warfarin (protein bound plus free drug) pharmacokinetics (AUCiss, Cmaxss or tmax,ss) for both R- and S-warfarin were not altered by duloxetine. Because of the potential effect of duloxetine on platelets, patients receiving warfarin therapy should be carefully monitored when duloxetine is initiated or discontinued [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Lorazepam

Under steady-state conditions for duloxetine (60 mg Q 12 hours) and lorazepam (2 mg Q 12 hours), the pharmacokinetics of duloxetine were not affected by co-administration.

Temazepam

Under steady-state conditions for duloxetine (20 mg qhs) and temazepam (30 mg qhs), the pharmacokinetics of duloxetine were not affected by co-administration.

Drugs That Affect Gastric Acidity

Cymbalta has an enteric coating that resists dissolution until reaching a segment of the gastrointestinal tract where the pH exceeds 5.5. In extremely acidic conditions, Cymbalta, unprotected by the enteric coating, may undergo hydrolysis to form naphthol. Caution is advised in using Cymbalta in patients with conditions that may slow gastric emptying (e.g., some diabetics). Drugs that raise the gastrointestinal pH may lead to an earlier release of duloxetine. However, coadministration of Cymbalta with aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids (51 mEq) or Cymbalta with famotidine, had no significant effect on the rate or extent of duloxetine absorption after administration of a 40 mg oral dose. It is unknown whether the concomitant administration of proton pump inhibitors affects duloxetine absorption [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Drugs Metabolized By CYP1A2

In vitro drug interaction studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not induce CYP1A2 activity. Therefore, an increase in the metabolism of CYP1A2 substrates (e.g., theophylline, caffeine) resulting from induction is not anticipated, although clinical studies of induction have not been performed. Duloxetine is an inhibitor of the CYP1A2 isoform in in vitro studies, and in two clinical studies the average (90% confidence interval) increase in theophylline AUC was 7% (1%-15%) and 20% (13%-27%) when co-administered with duloxetine (60 mg twice daily).

Drugs Metabolized By CYP2D6

Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. When duloxetine was administered (at a dose of 60 mg twice daily) in conjunction with a single 50 mg dose of desipramine, a CYP2D6 substrate, the AUC of desipramine increased 3-fold [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Drugs Metabolized By CYP2C9

Results of in vitro studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not inhibit activity. In a clinical study, the pharmacokinetics of S-warfarin, a CYP2C9 substrate, were not significantly affected by duloxetine [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Drugs Metabolized By CYP3A

Results of in vitro studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not inhibit or induce CYP3A activity. Therefore, an increase or decrease in the metabolism of CYP3A substrates (e.g., oral contraceptives and other steroidal agents) resulting from induction or inhibition is not anticipated, although clinical studies have not been performed.

Drugs Metabolized By CYP2C19

Results of in vitro studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not inhibit CYP2C19 activity at therapeutic concentrations. Inhibition of the metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates is therefore not anticipated, although clinical studies have not been performed.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

[See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Serotonergic Drugs

[See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Alcohol

When Cymbalta and ethanol were administered several hours apart so that peak concentrations of each would coincide, Cymbalta did not increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by alcohol.

In the Cymbalta clinical trials database, three Cymbalta-treated patients had liver injury as manifested by ALT and total bilirubin elevations, with evidence of obstruction. Substantial intercurrent ethanol use was present in each of these cases, and this may have contributed to the abnormalities seen [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

CNS Drugs

[See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Drugs Highly Bound To Plasma Protein

Because duloxetine is highly bound to plasma protein, administration of Cymbalta to a patient taking another drug that is highly protein bound may cause increased free concentrations of the other drug, potentially resulting in adverse reactions. However, co-administration of duloxetine (60 or 120 mg) with warfarin (2-9 mg), a highly protein-bound drug, did not result in significant changes in INR and in the pharmacokinetics of either total S-or total R-warfarin (protein bound plus free drug) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Drug Abuse And Dependence

Abuse

In animal studies, duloxetine did not demonstrate barbiturate-like (depressant) abuse potential.

While Cymbalta has not been systematically studied in humans for its potential for abuse, there was no indication of drug-seeking behavior in the clinical trials. However, it is not possible to predict on the basis of premarketing experience the extent to which a CNS active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, physicians should carefully evaluate patients for a history of drug abuse and follow such patients closely, observing them for signs of misuse or abuse of Cymbalta (e.g., development of tolerance, incrementation of dose, drug-seeking behavior).

Dependence

In drug dependence studies, duloxetine did not demonstrate dependence-producing potential in rats.

Read the Cymbalta Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Last reviewed on RxList: 8/11/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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