"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Zarxio (filgrastim-sndz), the first biosimilar product approved in the United States.
Biological products are generally derived from a living organism. They can come from many sources, in"...
CYRAMZA increased the risk of hemorrhage and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, including severe and sometimes fatal hemorrhagic events. In Study 1, the incidence of severe bleeding was 3.4% for CYRAMZA and 2.6% for placebo. In Study 2, the incidence of severe bleeding was 4.3% for CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel and 2.4% for placebo plus paclitaxel.
Patients with gastric cancer receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were excluded from enrollment in Studies 1 and 2; therefore, the risk of gastric hemorrhage in CYRAMZA-treated patients with gastric tumors receiving NSAIDs is unknown. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience severe bleeding [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
In Study 3, the incidence of severe bleeding was 2.4% for CYRAMZA plus docetaxel and 2.3% for placebo plus docetaxel. Patients with NSCLC receiving therapeutic anticoagulation or chronic therapy with NSAIDS or other anti-platelet therapy other than once daily aspirin or with radiographic evidence of major airway or blood vessel invasion or intratumor cavitation were excluded from Study 3; therefore the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage in these groups of patients is unknown.
Arterial Thromboembolic Events
Serious, sometimes fatal, arterial thromboembolic events (ATEs) including myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, cerebrovascular accident, and cerebral ischemia occurred in clinical trials including 1.7% of 236 patients who received CYRAMZA as a single agent for gastric cancer in Study 1. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience a severe ATE [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
An increased incidence of severe hypertension occurred in patients receiving CYRAMZA as a single agent (8%) as compared to placebo (3%) and in patients receiving CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel (15%) as compared to placebo plus paclitaxel (3%) and in patients receiving CYRAMZA plus docetaxel (6%) as compared to placebo plus docetaxel (2%).
Control hypertension prior to initiating treatment with CYRAMZA. Monitor blood pressure every two weeks or more frequently as indicated during treatment.
Temporarily suspend CYRAMZA for severe hypertension until medically controlled. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA if medically significant hypertension cannot be controlled with antihypertensive therapy or in patients with hypertensive crisis or hypertensive encephalopathy [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Prior to the institution of premedication recommendations across clinical trials of CYRAMZA, IRRs occurred in 6 out of 37 patients (16%), including two severe events. The majority of IRRs across trials occurred during or following a first or second CYRAMZA infusion. Symptoms of IRRs included rigors/tremors, back pain/spasms, chest pain and/or tightness, chills, flushing, dyspnea, wheezing, hypoxia, and paresthesia. In severe cases, symptoms included bronchospasm, supraventricular tachycardia, and hypotension.
Monitor patients during the infusion for signs and symptoms of IRRs in a setting with available resuscitation equipment. Immediately and permanently discontinue CYRAMZA for Grade 3 or 4 IRRs [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
CYRAMZA is an antiangiogenic therapy that can increase the risk of gastrointestinal perforation, a potentially fatal event. Four of 570 patients (0.7%) who received CYRAMZA as a single agent in clinical trials experienced gastrointestinal perforation. In Study 2, the incidence of gastrointestinal perforations was also increased in patients that received CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel (1.2%) as compared to patients receiving placebo plus paclitaxel (0.3%). In Study 3, the incidence of gastrointestinal perforation was 1% for CYRAMZA plus docetaxel and 0.3% for placebo plus docetaxel. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience a gastrointestinal perforation [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Impaired Wound Healing
CYRAMZA has not been studied in patients with serious or non-healing wounds. CYRAMZA is an antiangiogenic therapy with the potential to adversely affect wound healing.
Withhold CYRAMZA prior to surgery. Resume following the surgical intervention based on clinical judgment of adequate wound healing. If a patient develops wound healing complications during therapy, discontinue CYRAMZA until the wound is fully healed [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Clinical Deterioration In Patients With Child-Pugh B Or C Cirrhosis
Clinical deterioration, manifested by new onset or worsening encephalopathy, ascites, or hepatorenal syndrome was reported in patients with Child-Pugh B or C cirrhosis who received single-agent CYRAMZA. Use CYRAMZA in patients with Child-Pugh B or C cirrhosis only if the potential benefits of treatment are judged to outweigh the risks of clinical deterioration.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS) has been reported with a rate of < 0.1% in clinical studies with CYRAMZA. Confirm the diagnosis of RPLS with MRI and discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who develop RPLS. Symptoms may resolve or improve within days, although some patients with RPLS can experience ongoing neurologic sequelae or death.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No animal studies have been performed to test ramucirumab for potential carcinogenicity or genotoxicity.
Inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in animal models was shown to result in changes to hormone levels critical for pregnancy, and, in monkeys, an increased duration of the follicular cycle. In a 39 week animal study, female monkeys treated with ramucirumab showed dose dependent increases in follicular mineralization of the ovary.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Based on its mechanism of action, CYRAMZA may cause fetal harm. Animal models link angiogenesis, VEGF and VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) to critical aspects of female reproduction, embryofetal development, and postnatal development. There are no adequate or well controlled studies of ramucirumab in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, apprise the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus.
No animal studies have been specifically conducted to evaluate the effect of ramucirumab on reproduction and fetal development. In mice, loss of the VEGFR2 gene resulted in embryofetal death and these fetuses lacked organized blood vessels and blood islands in the yolk sac. In other models, VEGFR2 signaling was associated with development and maintenance of endometrial and placental vascular function, successful blastocyst implantation, maternal and fetoplacental vascular differentiation, and development during early pregnancy in rodents and non-human primates. Disruption of VEGF signaling has also been associated with developmental anomalies including poor development of the cranial region, forelimbs, forebrain, heart, and blood vessels.
It is not known whether CYRAMZA is excreted in human milk. No studies have been conducted to assess CYRAMZA's impact on milk production or its presence in breast milk. Human IgG is excreted in human milk, but published data suggests that breast milk antibodies do not enter the neonatal and infant circulation in substantial amounts. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential risk for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ramucirumab, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness of CYRAMZA in pediatric patients have not been established. In animal studies, effects on epiphyseal growth plates were identified. In cynomolgus monkeys, anatomical pathology revealed adverse effects on the epiphyseal growth plate (thickening and osteochondropathy) at all doses tested (5-50 mg/kg). Ramucirumab exposure at the lowest weekly dose tested in the cynomolgus monkey was 0.2 times the exposure in humans at the recommended dose of ramucirumab as a single agent.
Of the 563 CYRAMZA-treated patients in two randomized gastric cancer clinical studies, 36% were 65 and over, while 7% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. [see Clinical Studies]
Of the 1253 patients in Study 3, 455 (36%) were 65 and over and 84 (7%) were 75 and over. Of the 627 patients who received CYRAMZA plus docetaxel in Study 3, 237 (38%) were 65 and over, while 45 (7%) were 75 and over [see Clinical Studies]. In an exploratory subgroup analysis of Study 3, the hazard ratio for overall survival in patients less than 65 years old was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.87) and in patients 65 years or older was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.36). [see Clinical Studies]
No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment based on population PK analysis [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild hepatic impairment (total bilirubin within upper limit of normal [ULN] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] > ULN or total bilirubin > 1.0-1.5 times ULN and any AST) based on population PK analysis. Clinical deterioration was reported in patients with Child-Pugh B or C cirrhosis who received single-agent CYRAMZA [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Advise females of reproductive potential that CYRAMZA may impair fertility [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
Based on its mechanism of action, CYRAMZA may cause fetal harm [see Use In Specific Populations]. Advise females of reproductive potential to avoid getting pregnant while receiving CYRAMZA and for at least 3 months after the last dose of CYRAMZA.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/9/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Cyramza Information
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Get the latest treatment options.