"Sabahaddin Akman, owner of the Istanbul, Turkey, firm Ozay Pharmaceuticals, has pleaded guilty to charges of smuggling misbranded and adulterated cancer treatment drugs into the United States.
Akman pleaded guilty in the U.S. District Court"...
CYRAMZA increased the risk of hemorrhage and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, including severe and sometimes fatal hemorrhagic events. In Study 1, the incidence of severe bleeding was 3.4% for CYRAMZA and 2.6% for placebo. In Study 2, the incidence of severe bleeding was 4.3% for CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel and 2.4% for placebo plus paclitaxel.
Patients with gastric cancer receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were excluded from enrollment in Studies 1 and 2; therefore, the risk of gastric hemorrhage in CYRAMZA-treated patients with gastric tumors receiving NSAIDs is unknown.
In Study 3, the incidence of severe bleeding was 2.4% for CYRAMZA plus docetaxel and 2.3% for placebo plus docetaxel. Patients with NSCLC receiving therapeutic anticoagulation or chronic therapy with NSAIDS or other anti-platelet therapy other than once daily aspirin or with radiographic evidence of major airway or blood vessel invasion or intratumor cavitation were excluded from Study 3; therefore the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage in these groups of patients is unknown.
In Study 4, the incidence of severe bleeding was 2.5% for CYRAMZA plus FOLFIRI and 1.7% for placebo plus FOLFIRI.
Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience severe bleeding [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Arterial Thromboembolic Events
Serious, sometimes fatal, arterial thromboembolic events (ATEs) including myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, cerebrovascular accident, and cerebral ischemia occurred in clinical trials including 1.7% of 236 patients who received CYRAMZA as a single agent for gastric cancer in Study 1. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience a severe ATE [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
An increased incidence of severe hypertension occurred in patients receiving CYRAMZA as a single agent (8%) as compared to placebo (3%), in patients receiving CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel (15%) as compared to placebo plus paclitaxel (3%), in patients receiving CYRAMZA plus docetaxel (6%) as compared to placebo plus docetaxel (2%), and in patients receiving CYRAMZA plus FOLFIRI (11%) as compared to placebo plus FOLFIRI (3%).
Control hypertension prior to initiating treatment with CYRAMZA. Monitor blood pressure every two weeks or more frequently as indicated during treatment.
Temporarily suspend CYRAMZA for severe hypertension until medically controlled. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA if medically significant hypertension cannot be controlled with antihypertensive therapy or in patients with hypertensive crisis or hypertensive encephalopathy [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Prior to the institution of premedication recommendations across clinical trials of CYRAMZA, IRRs occurred in 6 out of 37 patients (16%), including two severe events. The majority of IRRs across trials occurred during or following a first or second CYRAMZA infusion. Symptoms of IRRs included rigors/tremors, back pain/spasms, chest pain and/or tightness, chills, flushing, dyspnea, wheezing, hypoxia, and paresthesia. In severe cases, symptoms included bronchospasm, supraventricular tachycardia, and hypotension.
Monitor patients during the infusion for signs and symptoms of IRRs in a setting with available resuscitation equipment. Immediately and permanently discontinue CYRAMZA for Grade 3 or 4 IRRs [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
CYRAMZA is an antiangiogenic therapy that can increase the risk of gastrointestinal perforation, a potentially fatal event. Four of 570 patients (0.7%) who received CYRAMZA as a single agent in clinical trials experienced gastrointestinal perforation. In Study 2, the incidence of gastrointestinal perforation was also increased in patients that received CYRAMZA plus paclitaxel (1.2%) as compared to patients receiving placebo plus paclitaxel (0.3%). In Study 3, the incidence of gastrointestinal perforation was 1% for CYRAMZA plus docetaxel and 0.3% for placebo plus docetaxel. In Study 4, the incidence of gastrointestinal perforation was 1.7% for CYRAMZA plus FOLFIRI and 0.6% for placebo plus FOLFIRI. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who experience a gastrointestinal perforation [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Impaired Wound Healing
Impaired wound healing can occur with antibodies inhibiting the VEGF pathway. CYRAMZA has not been studied in patients with serious or non-healing wounds. CYRAMZA, an antiangiogenic therapy, has the potential to adversely affect wound healing. Discontinue CYRAMZA therapy in patients with impaired wound healing.
Withhold CYRAMZA prior to surgery. Resume following the surgical intervention based on clinical judgment of adequate wound healing. If a patient develops wound healing complications during therapy, discontinue CYRAMZA until the wound is fully healed [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Clinical Deterioration In Patients with Child-Pugh B or C Cirrhosis
Clinical deterioration, manifested by new onset or worsening encephalopathy, ascites, or hepatorenal syndrome was reported in patients with Child-Pugh B or C cirrhosis who received single-agent CYRAMZA. Use CYRAMZA in patients with Child-Pugh B or C cirrhosis only if the potential benefits of treatment are judged to outweigh the risks of clinical deterioration.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS) has been reported with a rate of < 0.1% in clinical studies with CYRAMZA. Confirm the diagnosis of RPLS with MRI and discontinue CYRAMZA in patients who develop RPLS. Symptoms may resolve or improve within days, although some patients with RPLS can experience ongoing neurologic sequelae or death.
Proteinuria Including Nephrotic Syndrome
In Study 4, severe proteinuria occurred more frequently in patients treated with CYRAMZA plus FOLFIRI compared to patients receiving placebo plus FOLFIRI. Severe proteinuria was reported in 3% of patients treated with CYRAMZA plus FOLFIRI (including 3 cases [0.6%] of nephrotic syndrome) compared to 0.2% of patients treated with placebo plus FOLFIRI.
Monitor proteinuria by urine dipstick and/or urinary protein creatinine ratio for the development of worsening of proteinuria during CYRAMZA therapy.
Withhold CYRAMZA for urine protein levels that are 2 or more grams over 24 hours. Reinitiate CYRAMZA at a reduced dose once the urine protein level returns to less than 2 grams over 24 hours. Permanently discontinue CYRAMZA for urine protein levels greater than 3 grams over 24 hours or in the setting of nephrotic syndrome [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Monitor thyroid function during treatment with CYRAMZA. In Study 4, the incidence of hypothyroidism reported as an adverse event was 2.6% in the CYRAMZA plus FOLFIRI treated patients and 0.9% in the placebo plus FOLFIRI treated patients.
Based on its mechanism of action, CYRAMZA can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. Animal models link angiogenesis, VEGF and VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) to critical aspects of female reproduction, embryofetal development, and postnatal development. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with CYRAMZA and for at 3 least months after the last dose of CYRAMZA [see Use In Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No animal studies have been performed to test ramucirumab for potential carcinogenicity or genotoxicity.
Inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in animal models was shown to result in changes to hormone levels critical for pregnancy, and, in monkeys, an increased duration of the follicular cycle. In a 39 week animal study, female monkeys treated with ramucirumab showed dose dependent increases in follicular mineralization of the ovary.
Use In Specific Populations
Based on its mechanism of action [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], CYRAMZA can cause fetal harm. Animal models link angiogenesis, VEGF and VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) to critical aspects of female reproduction, embryofetal development, and postnatal development. There are no available data on CYRAMZA use in pregnant women to inform any drug–associated risks. No animal studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of ramucirumab on reproduction and fetal development. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations are unknown. In the U.S. general population the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
No animal studies have been specifically conducted to evaluate the effect of ramucirumab on reproduction and fetal development. In mice, loss of the VEGFR2 gene resulted in embryofetal death and these fetuses lacked organized blood vessels and blood islands in the yolk sac. In other models, VEGFR2 signaling was associated with development and maintenance of endometrial and placental vascular function, successful blastocyst implantation, maternal and fetoplacental vascular differentiation, and development during early pregnancy in rodents and non-human primates. Disruption of VEGF signaling has also been associated with developmental anomalies including poor development of the cranial region, forelimbs, forebrain, heart, and blood vessels.
There is no information on the presence of ramucirumab in human milk, the effects on the breast-fed infant, or the effects on milk production. Human IgG is present in human milk, but published data suggest that breast milk antibodies do not enter the neonatal and infant circulation in substantial amounts. Because of the potential risk for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ramucirumab, advise women that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with CYRAMZA.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Based on its mechanism of action, CYRAMZA can cause fetal harm [see Use In Specific Populations]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception while receiving CYRAMZA and for at least 3 months after the last dose of CYRAMZA.
Advise females of reproductive potential that based on animal data CYRAMZA may impair fertility [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
The safety and effectiveness of CYRAMZA in pediatric patients have not been established. In animal studies, effects on epiphyseal growth plates were identified. In cynomolgus monkeys, anatomical pathology revealed adverse effects on the epiphyseal growth plate (thickening and osteochondropathy) at all doses tested (5-50 mg/kg). Ramucirumab exposure at the lowest weekly dose tested in the cynomolgus monkey was 0.2 times the exposure in humans at the recommended dose of ramucirumab as a single agent.
Of the 563 CYRAMZA-treated patients in two randomized gastric cancer clinical studies, 36% were 65 and over, while 7% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. [see Clinical Studies]
Of the 1253 patients in Study 3, 455 (36%) were 65 and over and 84 (7%) were 75 and over. Of the 627 patients who received CYRAMZA plus docetaxel in Study 3, 237 (38%) were 65 and over, while 45 (7%) were 75 and over [see Clinical Studies]. In an exploratory subgroup analysis of Study 3, the hazard ratio for overall survival in patients less than 65 years old was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.87) and in patients 65 years or older was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.36). [see Clinical Studies]
Of the 529 patients who received CYRAMZA plus FOLFIRI in Study 4, 209 (40%) were 65 and over, while 51 (10%) were 75 and over. Overall, no differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. [see Clinical Studies]
No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment based on population pharmacokinetic analysis [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild (total bilirubin within upper limit of normal [ULN] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] > ULN, or total bilirubin > 1.0-1.5 times ULN and any AST) or moderate (total bilirubin > 1.5-3.0 times ULN and any AST) hepatic impairment based on population pharmacokinetic analysis. Clinical deterioration was reported in patients with Child-Pugh B or C cirrhosis who received single-agent CYRAMZA [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/14/2015
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