"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved the Gastric Emptying Breath Test (GEBT), a new non-invasive test to aid in the diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying, known as gastroparesis.
Current tests used to diagnose gastroparesis "...
See BOXED WARNINGS.
For hospital use only if misoprostol were to be used for cervical ripening, induction of labor, or for the treatment of serious post-partum hemorrhage, which are outside of the approved indication.
Caution should be employed when administering Cytotec (misoprostol) to patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.
Information for patients
Women of childbearing potential using Cytotec to decrease the risk of NSAID-induced ulcers should be told that they must not be pregnant when Cytotec therapy is initiated, and that they must use an effective contraception method while taking Cytotec.
See BOXED WARNINGS.
Cytotec should be taken only according to the directions given by a physician.
If the patient has questions about or problems with Cytotec, the physician should be contacted promptly.
THE PATIENT SHOULD NOT GIVE CYTOTEC TO ANYONE ELSE. Cytotec has been prescribed for the patient's specific condition, may not be the correct treatment for another person, and may be dangerous to the other person if she were to become pregnant.
The Cytotec package the patient receives from the pharmacist will include a leaflet containing patient information. The patient should read the leaflet before taking Cytotec and each time the prescription is renewed because the leaflet may have been revised.
Keep Cytotec out of the reach of children.
SPECIAL NOTE FOR WOMEN: Cytotec may cause birth defects, abortion (sometimes incomplete), or premature labor if given to pregnant women.
Cytotec is available only as a unit-of-use package that includes a leaflet containing patient information. See PATIENT INFORMATION at the end of this labeling.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
There was no evidence of an effect of Cytotec on tumor occurrence or incidence in rats receiving daily doses up to 150 times the human dose for 24 months. Similarly, there was no effect of Cytotec on tumor occurrence or incidence in mice receiving daily doses up to 1000 times the human dose for 21 months. The mutagenic potential of Cytotec was tested in several in vitro assays, all of which were negative.
Misoprostol, when administered to breeding male and female rats at doses 6.25 times to 625 times the maximum recommended human therapeutic dose, produced dose-related pre-and post-implantation losses and a significant decrease in the number of live pups born at the highest dose. These findings suggest the possibility of a general adverse effect on fertility in males and females.
Pregnancy Category X
Teratogenic effects: See BOXED WARNINGS. Congenital anomalies sometimes associated with fetal death have been reported subsequent to the unsuccessful use of misoprostol as an abortifacient, but the drug's teratogenic mechanism has not been demonstrated. Several reports in the literature associate the use of misoprostol during the first trimester of pregnancy with skull defects, cranial nerve palsies, facial malformations, and limb defects.
Cytotec is not fetotoxic or teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses 625 and 63 times the human dose, respectively.
Nonteratogenic effects: See BOXED WARNINGS. Cytotec may endanger pregnancy (may cause abortion) and thereby cause harm to the fetus when administered to a pregnant woman. Cytotec may produce uterine contractions, uterine bleeding, and expulsion of the products of conception. Abortions caused by Cytotec may be incomplete. If a woman is or becomes pregnant while taking this drug to reduce the risk of NSAID-induced ulcers, the drug should be discontinued and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Labor and delivery
Cytotec can induce or augment uterine contractions. Vaginal administration of Cytotec, outside of its approved indication, has been used as a cervical ripening agent, for the induction of labor and for treatment of serious postpartum hemorrhage in the presence of uterine atony. A major adverse effect of the obstetrical use of Cytotec is uterine tachysystole which may progress to uterine tetany with marked impairment of uteroplacental blood flow, uterine rupture (requiring surgical repair, hysterectomy, and/or salpingo-oophorectomy), or amniotic fluid embolism and lead to adverse fetal heart changes. Uterine activity and fetal status should be monitored by trained obstetrical personnel in a hospital setting.
The risk of uterine rupture increases with advancing gestational ages and prior uterine surgery, including Cesarean delivery. Grand multiparity also appears to be a risk factor for uterine rupture.
The use of Cytotec outside of its approved indication may also be associated with meconium passage, meconium staining of amniotic fluid, and Cesarean delivery. Maternal shock, maternal death, fetal bradycardia, and fetal death have also been reported with the use of misoprostol.
Cytotec should not be used in the third trimester in women with a history of Cesarean section or major uterine surgery because of an increased risk of uterine rupture. Cytotec should not be used in cases where uterotonic drugs are generally contraindicated or where hyperstimulation of the uterus is considered inappropriate, such as cephalopelvic disproportion, grand multiparity, hypertonic or hyperactive uterine patterns, or fetal distress where delivery is not imminent, or when surgical intervention is more appropriate.
The effect of Cytotec on later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child when Cytotec is used for cervical ripening or induction of labor has not been established. Information on Cytotec's effect on the need for forceps delivery or other intervention is unknown.
Misoprostol is rapidly metabolized in the mother to misoprostol acid, which is biologically active and is excreted in breast milk. There are no published reports of adverse effects of misoprostol in breast-feeding infants of mothers taking misoprostol. Caution should be exercised when misoprostol is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of Cytotec in pediatric patients have not been established.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/7/2012
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