"Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the XVIVO Perfusion System (XPS) with STEEN Solution, a device for preserving donated lungs that do not initially meet the standard criteria for lung transplantation but may be transplantable "...
Treatment Of Acute Bronchospasm
DALIRESP is not a bronchodilator and should not be used for the relief of acute bronchospasm.
Psychiatric Events Including Suicidality
Treatment with DALIRESP is associated with an increase in psychiatric adverse reactions. In 8 controlled clinical trials 5.9% (263) of patients treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg daily reported psychiatric adverse reactions compared to 3.3% (137) treated with placebo. The most commonly reported psychiatric adverse reactions were insomnia, anxiety, and depression which were reported at higher rates in those treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg daily (2.4%, 1.4%, and 1.2% for DALIRESP versus 1.0%, 0.9%, and 0.9% for placebo, respectively) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Instances of suicidal ideation and behavior, including completed suicide, have been observed in clinical trials. Three patients experienced suicide-related adverse reactions (one completed suicide and two suicide attempts) while receiving DALIRESP compared to one patient (suicidal ideation) who received placebo. Cases of suicidal ideation and behavior, including completed suicide, have been observed in the post-marketing setting in patients with or without a history of depression.
Before using DALIRESP in patients with a history of depression and/or suicidal thoughts or behavior, prescribers should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of treatment with DALIRESP in such patients. Patients, their caregivers, and families should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of insomnia, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts or other mood changes, and if such changes occur to contact their healthcare provider. Prescribers should carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of continuing treatment with DALIRESP if such events occur.
Weight loss was a common adverse reaction in DALIRESP clinical trials and was reported in 7.5% (331) of patients treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg once daily compared to 2.1% (89) treated with placebo [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. In addition to being reported as adverse reactions, weight was prospectively assessed in two placebo-controlled clinical trials of one year duration. In these studies, 20% of patients receiving roflumilast experienced moderate weight loss (defined as between 5-10% of body weight) compared to 7% of patients who received placebo. In addition, 7% of patients who received roflumilast compared to 2% of patients receiving placebo experienced severe (> 10% body weight) weight loss. During follow-up after treatment discontinuation, the majority of patients with weight loss regained some of the weight they had lost while receiving DALIRESP. Patients treated with DALIRESP should have their weight monitored regularly. If unexplained or clinically significant weight loss occurs, weight loss should be evaluated, and discontinuation of DALIRESP should be considered.
A major step in roflumilast metabolism is the N-oxidation of roflumilast to roflumilast N-oxide by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. The administration of the cytochrome P450 enzyme inducer rifampicin resulted in a reduction in exposure, which may result in a decrease in the therapeutic effectiveness of DALIRESP. Therefore, the use of strong cytochrome P450 enzyme inducers (e.g. rifampicin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin) with DALIRESP is not recommended [see Drugs that Induce Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
DALIRESP is not a bronchodilator and should not be used for immediate relief of breathing problems (i.e., as a rescue medication).
- Psychiatric Events including
Treatment with DALIRESP is associated with an increase in psychiatric adverse reactions. Cases of suicidal ideation and behavior, including completed suicide, have been observed in the post-marketing setting in patients with or without a history of depression. The risks and benefits of treatment with DALIRESP in patients with a history of depression and/or suicidal thoughts or behavior should be carefully considered. Advise patients, caregivers, and families to be alert for the emergence or worsening of insomnia, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts or other mood changes, and if such changes occur to contact their healthcare provider so that the risks and benefits of continuing treatment with DALIRESP may be considered [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Weight Decrease
Weight loss was a common adverse reaction in DALIRESP clinical trials. During follow-up after treatment discontinuation, the majority of patients with weight loss regained some of the weight they had lost while receiving DALIRESP. Advise patients treated with DALIRESP to have their weight monitored regularly. If unexplained weight loss occurs, patients should inform their healthcare provider so that the weight loss can be evaluated, as discontinuation of DALIRESP may need to be considered [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Drug Interactions
The use of cytochrome P450 enzyme inducers resulted in a reduction in exposure which may result in decreased therapeutic effectiveness of DALIRESP. The use of strong cytochrome P450 enzyme inducers (e.g., rifampicin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin) with DALIRESP is not recommended [see Drugs that Induce Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term studies were conducted in hamsters and mice with roflumilast to evaluate its carcinogenic potential. In 2-year oral gavage carcinogenicity studies, roflumilast treatment resulted in dose-related, statistically significant increases in the incidence of undifferentiated carcinomas of nasal epithelium in hamsters at ≥ 8 mg/kg/day (approximately 11 times the MRHD based on summed AUCs of roflumilast and its metabolites). The tumorigenicity of roflumilast appears to be attributed to a reactive metabolite of 4-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine N-oxide (ADCP N-oxide). No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in mice at roflumilast oral doses up to 12 and 18 mg/kg/day in females and males, respectively (approximately 10 and 15 times the MRHD, respectively, based on summed AUCs of roflumilast and its metabolites).
Roflumilast tested positive in an in vivo mouse micronucleus test, but negative in the following assays: Ames test for bacterial gene mutation, in vitro chromosome aberration assay in human lymphocytes, in vitro HPRT test with V79 cells, an in vitro micronucleus test with V79 cells, DNA adduct formation assay in rat nasal mucosa, liver and testes, and in vivo mouse bone marrow chromosome aberration assay. Roflumilast N-oxide was negative in the Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test with V79 cells.
In a human spermatogenesis study, roflumilast 500 mcg had no effects on semen parameters or reproductive hormones during the 3-month treatment period and the following 3-month off-treatment period. In a fertility study, roflumilast decreased fertility rates in male rats at 1.8-mg/kg/day (approximately 29 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). These rats also showed increases in the incidence of tubular atrophy, degeneration in the testis and spermiogenic granuloma in the epididymides. No effect on male rat fertility rate or reproductive organ morphology was observed at 0.8 mg/kg/day (approximately 13 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). No effect on female fertility was observed up to the highest roflumilast dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day in rats (approximately 24 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis).
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic effects: Pregnancy Category C: There are no adequate and well controlled studies of DALIRESP in pregnant women. DALIRESP was not teratogenic in mice, rats, or rabbits. DALIRESP should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
DALIRESP induced stillbirth and decreased pup viability in mice at doses corresponding to approximately 16 and 49 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses > 2 mg/kg/day and 6 mg/kg/day, respectively). DALIRESP induced post-implantation loss in rats at doses greater than or equal to approximately 10 times the MRHD (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses ≥ 0.6 mg/kg/day). No treatment-related effects on embryo-fetal development were observed in mice, rats, and rabbits at approximately 12, 3, and 26 times the MRHD, respectively (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses of 1.5, 0.2, and 0.8 mg/kg/day, respectively).
DALIRESP has been shown to adversely affect pup post-natal development when dams were treated with the drug during pregnancy and lactation periods in mice. These studies found that DALIRESP decreased pup rearing frequencies at approximately 49 times the MRHD (on a mg/mg2 basis at a maternal dose of 6 mg/kg/day) during pregnancy and lactation. DALIRESP also decreased survival and forelimb grip reflex and delayed pinna detachment in mouse pups at approximately 97 times the MRHD (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 12 mg/kg/day) during pregnancy and lactation.
Labor And Delivery
DALIRESP should not be used during labor and delivery. There are no human studies that have investigated effects of DALIRESP on preterm labor or labor at term; however, animal studies showed that DALIRESP disrupted the labor and delivery process in mice. DALIRESP induced delivery retardation in pregnant mice at doses greater than or equal to approximately 16 times the MRHD (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of > 2 mg/kg/day).
Roflumilast and/or its metabolites are excreted into the milk of lactating rats. Excretion of roflumilast and/or its metabolites into human milk is probable. There are no human studies that have investigated effects of DALIRESP on breast-fed infants. DALIRESP should not be used by women who are nursing.
COPD does not normally occur in children. The safety and effectiveness of DALIRESP in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the 4438 COPD subjects exposed to DALIRESP for up to 12 months in 8 controlled clinical trials, 2022 were > 65 years of age and 471 were > 75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Based on available data for roflumilast, no adjustment of dosage in geriatric patients is warranted [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Roflumilast 250 mcg once daily for 14 days was studied in subjects with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment classified as Child-Pugh A and B (8 subjects in each group). The AUCs of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were increased by 51% and 24%, respectively in Child-Pugh A subjects and by 92% and 41%, respectively in Child-Pugh B subjects, as compared to age-, weight-and gender-matched healthy subjects. The Cmax of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were increased by 3% and 26%, respectively in Child-Pugh A subjects and by 26% and 40%, respectively in Child-Pugh B subjects, as compared to healthy subjects. DALIRESP 500 mcg has not been studied in hepatically impaired patients. Clinicians should consider the risk-benefit of administering DALIRESP to patients who have mild liver impairment (Child-Pugh A). DALIRESP is not recommended for use in patients with moderate or severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh B or C) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
In twelve subjects with severe renal impairment administered a single dose of 500 mcg roflumilast, the AUCs of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were decreased by 21% and 7%, respectively and Cmax were reduced by 16% and 12%, respectively. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/7/2015
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