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Serious hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) and skin reactions have been reported in patients treated with DALVANCE. If an allergic reaction occurs, treatment with DALVANCE should be discontinued. Before using DALVANCE, inquire carefully about previous hypersensitivity reactions to glycopeptides, and due to the possibility of cross-sensitivity, exercise caution in patients with a history of glycopeptide allergy [see PATIENT INFORMATION].
DALVANCE is administered via intravenous infusion, using a total infusion time of 30 minutes to minimize the risk of infusion-related reactions. Rapid intravenous infusions of DALVANCE can cause reactions that resemble “Red-Man Syndrome,” including flushing of the upper body, urticaria, pruritus, and/or rash. Stopping or slowing the infusion may result in cessation of these reactions.
In Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials, more DALVANCE than comparator-treated subjects with normal baseline transaminase levels had post-baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN). Overall, abnormalities in liver tests (ALT, AST, bilirubin) were reported with similar frequency in the DALVANCE and comparator arms [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported in users of nearly all systemic antibacterial drugs, including DALVANCE, with severity ranging from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents can alter the normal flora of the colon, and may permit overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antibacterial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary because CDAD has been reported to occur more than 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile should be discontinued, if possible. Appropriate measures such as fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Development Of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Prescribing DALVANCE in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals to determine the carcinogenic potential of dalbavancin have not been conducted.
Dalbavancin was not genotoxic in a bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay, a mammalian HGPRT gene mutation assay, an in vitro chromosome aberration assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, or an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.
Impaired fertility in the rat was not observed at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day (1.2 times the human dose on an exposure basis). Reductions in male and female fertility and increased embryo resorptions occurred at a dose of 45 mg/kg/day (3.5 times the human dose on an exposure basis), at which signs of parental toxicity were also observed.
Use In Specific Populations
There have been no adequate and well-controlled studies with DALVANCE in pregnant women. DALVANCE should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
No treatment-related malformations or embryo-fetal toxicity were observed in pregnant rats or rabbits at clinically relevant exposures of dalbavancin. Treatment of pregnant rats with dalbavancin at 3.5 times the human dose on an exposure basis during early embryonic development and from implantation to the end of lactation resulted in delayed fetal maturation and increased fetal loss, respectively [see Data].
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. However, the background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2 to 4% and of miscarriage is 15 to 20% of clinically recognized pregnancies.
No evidence of embryo or fetal toxicity was found in the rat or rabbit at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day (1.2 and 0.7 times the human dose on an exposure basis, respectively). Delayed fetal maturation was observed in the rat at a dose of 45 mg/kg/day (3.5 times the human dose on an exposure basis).
In a rat prenatal and postnatal development study, increased embryo lethality and increased offspring deaths during the first week post-partum were observed at a dose of 45 mg/kg/day (3.5 times the human dose on an exposure basis).
It is not known whether dalbavancin or its metabolite is excreted in human milk; therefore, caution should be exercised when DALVANCE is administered to a nursing woman.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for DALVANCE and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from DALVANCE or from the underlying maternal condition.
Dalbavancin is excreted in the milk of lactating rats.
Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the 2473 patients treated with DALVANCE in Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials, 403 patients (16.3%) were 65 years of age or older. The efficacy and tolerability of DALVANCE were similar to comparator regardless of age. The pharmacokinetics of DALVANCE was not significantly altered with age; therefore, no dosage adjustment is necessary based on age alone.
DALVANCE is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection in this age group.
In patients with renal impairment whose known creatinine clearance is less than 30 mL/min and who are not receiving regularly scheduled hemodialysis, the recommended regimen for DALVANCE is 1125 mg, administered as a single dose, or 750 mg followed one week later by 375 mg. No dosage adjustment is recommended for patients receiving regularly scheduled hemodialysis, and DALVANCE can be administered without regard to the timing of hemodialysis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dosage adjustment of DALVANCE is recommended for patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A). Caution should be exercised when prescribing DALVANCE to patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B or C) as no data are available to determine the appropriate dosing in these patients [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/28/2016
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