"March 4, 2013 -- Nearly 30% of children with ADHDÂcontinue to struggle with the condition as adults, and some may develop other mental health issues, commit suicide, or end up in jail, a new study shows.
"We suffer from the misconceptio"...
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal system) is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
The efficacy of Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) was established in two controlled clinical trials in children with ADHD.
A diagnosis of ADHD (DSM-IV-TR®) implies the presence of hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment and were present before age 7 years. The symptoms must cause clinically significant impairment, e.g., in social, academic, or occupational functioning, and be present in two or more settings, e.g., school (or work) and at home. The symptoms must not be better accounted for by another mental disorder. For the Inattentive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: lack of attention to details/careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; poor listener; failure to follow through on tasks; poor organization; avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort; loses things; easily distracted; forgetful. For the Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: fidgeting/squirming; leaving seat; inappropriate running/climbing; difficulty with quiet activities; “on the go;” excessive talking; blurting answers; can't wait turn; intrusive. The Combined Type requires both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive criteria to be met.
Special Diagnostic Considerations
Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use not only of medical but of special psychological, educational, and social resources. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the child and not solely on the presence of the required number of DSM-IV-TR® characteristics.
Need for Comprehensive Treatment Program
Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with this syndrome. Drug treatment may not be indicated for all children with this syndrome. Stimulants are not intended for use in the child who exhibits symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician's assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child's symptoms.
The effectiveness of Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) for long-term use, i.e., for more than 7 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. The physician who elects to use Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
It is recommended that Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) be applied to the hip area 2 hours before an effect is needed and should be removed 9 hours after application. Dosage should be titrated to effect. The recommended dose titration schedule is shown in the table below. Dose titration, final dosage, and wear time should be individualized according to the needs and response of the patient.
TABLE 2 : Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) - Recommended Titration Schedule
(Patients New to Methylphenidate)
|Upward Titration, if Response is Not Maximized|
|Week 1||Week 2||Week 3||Week 4|
|Patch Size||12.5 cm²||18.75 cm²||25 cm 2||37.5 cm²|
|Nominal Delivered Dose* (mg/9 hours)||10 mg||15 mg||20 mg||30 mg|
|Delivery Rate*||(1.1 mg/hr)*||(1.6 mg/hr)*||(2.2 mg/hr)*||(3.3 mg/hr)*|
|*Nominal in vivo delivery rate in pediatric subjects aged 6-12 when applied to the hip, based on a 9-hour wear period.|
Patients converting from another formulation of methylphenidate should follow the above titration schedule due to differences in bioavailability of Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) compared to other products.
The parent or caregiver should be encouraged to use the administration chart included with each carton of Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) to monitor application and removal time, and method of disposal. The Medication Guide included at the end of this insert also includes a timetable to calculate when to remove Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) , based on the 9-hour application time.
The adhesive side of Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) should be placed on a clean, dry area of the hip. The area selected should not be oily, damaged, or irritated. Apply patch to the hip area. Avoid the waistline, since clothing may cause the patch to rub off. When applying the patch the next morning, place on the opposite hip at a new site if possible.
If patients or caregivers experience difficulty separating the patch from the release liner or observe transfer of adhesive to the liner, tearing and/or other damage to the patch during removal from the liner, the patch should be discarded according to the directions provided below, and a new patch should be applied. Patients or caregivers should inspect the release liner to ensure that no adhesive containing medication has transferred to the liner. If adhesive transfer has occurred, the patch should be discarded.
Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) should be applied immediately after opening the pouch and removing the protective liner. Do not use if the pouch seal is broken or if the patch appears to be damaged. Do not cut patches. Only intact patches should be applied. The patch should then be pressed firmly in place with the palm of the hand for approximately 30 seconds, making sure that there is good contact of the patch with the skin, especially around the edges. Exposure to water during bathing, swimming, or showering can affect patch adherence. Patches should not be applied or re-applied with dressings, tape, or other common adhesives. In the event that a patch falls off, a new patch may be applied at a different site, and the total recommended wear time for that day should remain 9 hours regardless of the number of patches used.
All patients should be advised to avoid exposing the Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) application site to direct external heat sources, such as hair dryers, heating pads, electric blankets, heated water beds, etc., while wearing the patch. When heat is applied to Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) after patch application, both the rate and the extent of absorption are significantly increased. The temperature-dependent increase in methylphenidate absorption can be greater than 2-fold (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics/Absorption). This increased absorption can be clinically significant and result in overdose of methylphenidate (see OVERDOSAGE).
Patches should not be stored in refrigerators or freezers.
Removal of Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal)
Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) patches should be peeled off slowly. If necessary, patch removal may be facilitated by gently applying an oil-based product (i.e., petroleum jelly, olive oil, or mineral oil) to the patch edges, gently working the oil underneath the patch edges. If any adhesive remains on the skin following patch removal, an oil based product may be applied to patch sites in an effort to gently loosen and remove any residual adhesive that remains following patch removal.
In the unlikely event that a patch remains tightly adhered despite these measures, the patient or caregiver should contact the physician or pharmacist. Nonmedical adhesive removers and acetone-based products (i.e., nail polish remover) should not be used to remove Daytrana (methylphenidate transdermal) patches or adhesive.
Disposal of Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal)
Upon removal of Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) , used patches should be folded so that the adhesive side of the patch adheres to itself and should be flushed down the toilet or disposed of in an appropriate lidded container. If the patient stops using the prescription, each unused patch should be removed from its pouch, separated from the protective liner, folded onto itself, and flushed down the toilet or disposed of in an appropriate lidded container.
The parent should be encouraged to record on the administration chart included with each carton the time that each patch was applied and removed. If a patch was removed without the parent or caregiver's knowledge, or if a patch is missing from the tray, the parent or caregiver should be encouraged to ask the child when and how the patch was removed.
There is no body of evidence available from controlled clinical trials to indicate how long the patient with ADHD should be treated with Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) . It is generally agreed, however, that pharmacological treatment of ADHD may be needed for extended periods. Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) for extended periods in patients with ADHD should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient with periods off medication to assess the patient's functioning without pharmacotherapy. Improvement may be sustained when the drug is either temporarily or permanently discontinued.
Dose/Wear Time Reduction and Discontinuation
Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal) may be removed earlier than 9 hours if a shorter duration of effect is desired or late day side effects appear. Plasma concentrations of d-methylphenidate generally begin declining when the patch is removed, although absorption may continue for several hours. Individualization of wear time may help manage some of the side effects caused by methylphenidate. If aggravation of symptoms or other adverse events occur, the dosage or wear time should be reduced, or, if necessary, the drug should be discontinued. Residual methylphenidate remains in used patches when worn as recommended.
Daytrana™ (methylphenidate transdermal system) is supplied in a sealed tray containing 30 or 10 individually pouched patches. See the chart below for information regarding available strengths.
|Nominal Dose Delivered (mg) Over 9 Hours||Dosage Rate* (mg/hr)||Patch Size (cm²)||Methylphenidate Content per Patch** (mg)||Patches Per Tray||NDC Number|
|*Nominal in vivo delivery rate per hour in
pediatric subjects aged 6-12 when applied to the hip, based on a 9-hour
**Methylphenidate content in each patch.
Store at 25° C (77° F); excursions permitted to 15-30° C (59-86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not store patches unpouched. Do not store patches in refrigerators or freezers.
Once the tray is opened, use contents within 2 months. Apply the patch immediately upon removal from the protective pouch. For transdermal use only.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association 1994.
Manufactured for Shire US Inc., Wayne, PA 19087 by Noven Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Miami, FL 33186. For more information call 1-800-828-2088 or visit www.daytrana (methylphenidate transdermal) .com. Rev. 12/09.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/5/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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