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- Very rare cases of hyponatremia have been reported from world-wide postmarketing experience in patients treated with DDAVP (desmopressin acetate). DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) is a potent antidiuretic which, when administered, may lead to water intoxication and/or hyponatremia. Unless properly diagnosed and treated hyponatremia can be fatal. Therefore, fluid restriction is recommended and should be discussed with the patient and/or guardian. Careful medical supervision is required.
- When DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) Tablets are administered, in particular in pediatric and geriatric patients, fluid intake should be adjusted downward to decrease the potential occurrence of water intoxication and hyponatremia. (See PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use and Geriatric Use.) All patients receiving DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) therapy should be observed for the following signs of symptoms associated with hyponatremia: headache, nausea/vomiting, decreased serum sodium, weight gain, restlessness, fatigue, lethargy, disorientation, depressed reflexes, loss of appetite, irritability, muscle weakness, muscle spasms or cramps and abnormal mental status such as hallucinations, decreased consciousness and confusion. Severe symptoms may include one or a combination of the following: seizure, coma and/or respiratory arrest. Particular attention should be paid to the possibility of the rare occurrence of an extreme decrease in plasma osmolality that may result in seizures which could lead to coma.
- DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) should be used with caution in patients with habitual or psychogenic polydipsia who may be more likely to drink excessive amounts of water, putting them at greater risk of hyponatremia.
General: Intranasal formulations of DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) at high doses and DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) Injection have infrequently produced a slight elevation of blood pressure which disappears with a reduction of dosage. Although this effect has not been observed when single oral doses up to 0.6 mg have been administered, the drug should be used with caution in patients with coronary artery insufficiency and/or hypertensive cardiovascular disease, because of a possible rise in blood pressure.
DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) should be used with caution in patients with conditions associated with fluid and electrolyte imbalance, such as cystic fibrosis, heart failure and renal disorders because these patients are prone to hyponatremia.
Rare severe allergic reactions have been reported with DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) . Anaphylaxis has been reported rarely with intravenous and intranasal administration of DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) but not with DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) Tablets.
Laboratory Tests: Central Diabetes Insipidus: Laboratory tests for monitoring the patient with central diabetes insipidus or post-surgical or head trauma-related polyuria and polydipsia include urine volume and osmolality. In some cases, measurements of plasma osmolality may be useful.
Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, Impairment of Fertility: Studies with DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential or effects on fertility.
Pregnancy: Category B: Fertility studies have not been done. Teratology studies in rats and rabbits at doses from 0.05 to 10 mcg/kg/day (approximately 0.1 times the maximum systemic human exposure in rats and up to 38 times the maximum systemic human exposure in rabbits based on surface area, mg/m ) revealed no harm to the fetus due to DDAVP (desmopressin acetate). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Several publications where desmopressin acetate was used in the management of diabetes insipidus during pregnancy are available; these include a few anecdotal reports of congenital anomalies and low birth weight babies. However, no causal connection between these events and desmopressin acetate has been established. A fifteen year Swedish epidemiologic study of the use of desmopressin acetate in pregnant women with diabetes insipidus found the rate of birth defects to be no greater than that in the general population; however, the statistical power of this study is low. As opposed to preparations containing natural hormones, desmopressin acetate in antidiuretic doses has no uterotonic action and the physician will have to weigh the possible therapeutic advantages against the possible risks in each case.
Nursing Mothers: There have been no controlled studies in nursing mothers. A single study in postpartum women demonstrated a marked change in plasma, but little if any change in assayable DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) in breast milk following an intranasal dose of 0.01 mg.
It is not known whether the drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) is administered to nursing mothers.
Pediatric Use: Central Diabetes Insipidus: DDAVP Tablets (desmopressin acetate) have been used safely in pediatric patients, age 4 years and older, with diabetes insipidus for periods up to 44 months. In younger pediatric patients the dose must be individually adjusted in order to prevent an excessive decrease in plasma osmolality leading to hyponatremia and possible convulsions; dosing should start at 0.05 mg (1/2 of the 0.1 mg tablet). Use of DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) Tablets in pediatric patients requires careful fluid intake restrictions to prevent possible hyponatremia and water intoxication. Fluid restriction should be discussed with the patient and/or guardian. (See WARNINGS)
Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) Tablets have been safely used in pediatric patients age 6 years and older with primary nocturnal enuresis for up to 6 months. Some patients respond to a dose of 0.2 mg; however, increasing responses are seen at doses of 0.4 mg and 0.6 mg. No increase in the frequency or severity of adverse reactions or decrease in efficacy was seen with an increased dose or duration. The dose should be individually adjusted to achieve the best results. Treatment with desmopressin for primary nocturnal enuresis should be interrupted during acute intercurrent illness characterized by fluid and/or electrolyte imbalance (e.g., systemic infections, fever, recurrent vomiting or diarrhea) or under conditions of extremely hot weather, vigorous exercise or other conditions associated with increased water intake.
Geriatric Use: Clinical studies of DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) Tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) is contraindicated in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (defined as a creatinine clearance below 50ml/min). (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Human Pharmacokinetics and CONTRAINDICATIONS )
Use of DDAVP (desmopressin acetate tablets) Tablets in geriatric patients requires careful fluid intake restrictions to prevent possible hyponatremia and water intoxication. Fluid restriction should be discussed with the patient. (See WARNINGS.)
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/18/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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