Degenerative Disc (cont.)
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Catherine Burt Driver, MD
Catherine Burt Driver, MD, is board certified in internal medicine and rheumatology by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Driver is a member of the American College of Rheumatology. She currently is in active practice in the field of rheumatology in Mission Viejo, Calif., where she is a partner in Mission Internal Medical Group.
In this Article
- Degenerative disc disease and sciatica facts
- How is the spine designed?
- What is the purpose of the spine and its discs?
- What causes degenerative disc disease?
- What are the symptoms of degenerative disc disease?
- What are radiculopathy and sciatica? What are the symptoms?
- How are degenerative disc disease, radiculopathy, and sciatica diagnosed?
- How is radiculopathy treated?
- What is bony encroachment and spinal stenosis?
- What is the outlook (prognosis) of degenerative disc disease, radiculopathy, and sciatica?
- Can degenerative disc disease, radiculopathy, and sciatica be prevented?
- Find a local Orthopedic Surgeon in your town
What are radiculopathy and sciatica? What are the symptoms?
Radiculopathy refers to nerve irritation caused by damage to the disc between the vertebrae. This occurs because of degeneration ("wear and tear") of the outer ring of the disc or because of traumatic injury, or both. Weakness of the outer ring leads to disc bulging and disc herniation. As a result, the central softer portion of the disc can rupture through the outer ring of the disc and abut the spinal cord or its nerves as they exit the bony spinal column.
When nerves are irritated in the neck from degenerative disc disease, the condition is referred to as cervical radiculopathy. This can lead to painful burning or tingling sensations in the arms. When nerves are irritated in the low back from degenerative disc disease, the condition is called lumbar radiculopathy, and it often causes the commonly recognized "sciatica" pain that shoots down a lower extremity. This condition can be preceded by a localized low-back aching. Sciatica pain can follow a "popping" sensation at onset and be accompanied by numbness and tingling. The pain commonly increases with movements at the waist and can increase with coughing or sneezing. In more severe instances, lumbar radiculopathy can be accompanied by incontinence of the bladder and/or bowels.
How are degenerative disc disease, radiculopathy, and sciatica diagnosed?
Degenerative disc disease, radiculopathy, and sciatica are suspected when the symptoms described above are noted. The doctor can sometimes detect signs of irritated nerves during the examination. For example, increased radiating pain when the lower extremity is lifted supports the diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy. Nerve testing (EMG/electromyogram and NCV/nerve conduction velocity) of the lower extremities can be used to detect the nerve irritation. The actual disc herniation can be detected with radiology testing, such as CAT or MRI scanning.
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