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Renal impairment, including minimal change nephropathy, acute and chronic interstitial nephritis, and renal failure, has been reported in patients taking products such as Delzicol that contain mesalamine or are converted to mesalamine.
It is recommended that patients have an evaluation of renal function prior to initiation of Delzicol and periodically while on therapy.
Prescribers should carefully evaluate the risks and benefits when using Delzicol in patients with known renal dysfunction or history of renal disease [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and Nonclinical Toxicology].
Mesalamine-Induced Acute Intolerance Syndrome
Mesalamine has been associated with an acute intolerance syndrome that may be difficult to distinguish from an exacerbation of ulcerative colitis. Although the exact frequency of occurrence has not been determined, it has occurred in 3 percent of controlled clinical trials of mesalamine or sulfasalazine. Symptoms include cramping, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and sometimes fever, headache, and rash. Observe patients closely for worsening of these symptoms while on treatment. If acute intolerance syndrome is suspected, promptly discontinue treatment with Delzicol.
Some patients who have experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine may have a similar reaction to Delzicol or to other compounds that contain or are converted to mesalamine.
Mesalamine-induced cardiac hypersensitivity reactions (myocarditis and pericarditis) have been reported with Delzicol and other mesalamine medications. Caution should be taken in prescribing this medicine to patients with conditions predisposing them to the development of myocarditis or pericarditis.
There have been reports of hepatic failure in patients with pre-existing liver disease who have been administered mesalamine. Caution should be exercised when administering Delzicol to patients with liver disease.
Upper GI Tract Obstruction
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Mesalamine was not carcinogenic at dietary doses of up to 480 mg/kg/day in rats and 2000 mg/kg/day in mice, which are about 2.9 and 6.1 times the maximum recommended maintenance dose of Delzicol of 1.6 g/day or 26.7 mg/kg/day, based on 60 kg body weight, respectively, based on body surface area.
Mesalamine was negative in the Ames assay for mutagenesis, negative for induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro, and negative for induction of micronuclei (MN) in mouse bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes.
Impairment of Fertility
Mesalamine, at oral doses up to 480 mg/kg/day (about 1.9 times the recommended human treatment dose on a body surface area basis), was found to have no effect on fertility or reproductive performance of male and female rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B: There are no adequate and well controlled studies of Delzicol use in pregnant women. Limited published human data on mesalamine show no increase in the overall rate of congenital malformations. Some data show an increased rate of preterm birth, stillbirth, and low birth weight; however, these adverse pregnancy outcomes are also associated with active inflammatory bowel disease. Animal reproduction studies of mesalamine found no evidence of fetal harm.
Mesalamine crosses the placenta. In prospective and retrospective studies of over 600 women exposed to mesalamine during pregnancy, the observed rate of congenital malformations was not increased above the background rate in the general population. Some data show an increased rate of preterm birth, stillbirth, and low birth weight, but it is unclear whether this was due to underlying maternal disease, drug exposure, or both, as active inflammatory bowel disease is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Reproduction studies with mesalamine were performed during organogenesis in rats and rabbits at oral doses up to 480 mg/kg/day. There was no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus. These mesalamine doses were about 1.9 times (rat) and 3.9 times (rabbit) the recommended human dose, based on body surface area.
Mesalamine and its N-acetyl metabolite are excreted into human milk. In published lactation studies, maternal mesalamine doses from various oral and rectal formulations and products ranged from 500 mg to 3 g daily. The concentration of mesalamine in milk ranged from non-detectable to 0.11 mg/L. The concentration of the N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid metabolite ranged from 5 to 18.1 mg/L. Based on these concentrations, estimated infant daily doses for an exclusively breastfed infant are 0 to 0.017 mg/kg/day of mesalamine and 0.75 to 2.72 mg/kg/day of N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid. Caution should be exercised when Delzicol is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of Delzicol in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of mesalamine delayed-release tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. In general, the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy in elderly patients should be considered when prescribing Delzicol. Reports from uncontrolled clinical studies and postmarketing reporting systems suggest a higher incidence of blood dyscrasias, that is, agranulocytosis, neutropenia, pancytopenia, in subjects receiving mesalamine delayed-release tablets who are 65 years or older. Caution should be taken to closely monitor blood cell counts during treatment with Delzicol.
Mesalamine is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken when prescribing this drug therapy. It is recommended that all patients have an evaluation of renal function prior to initiation of Delzicol therapy and periodically while on Delzicol therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/19/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Delzicol Information
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