Depakote Sprinkle Capsules
"March 4, 2010 -- One of the oldest drugs used to treat the most common form of pediatric epilepsy is also the most effective, a study shows.
As many as 17% of children with epilepsy have absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizure"...
Depakote Sprinkle Capsules
Depakote Sprinkle Capsules are indicated as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in the treatment of adult patients and pediatric patients down to the age of 10 years with complex partial seizures that occur either in isolation or in association with other types of seizures. Depakote Sprinkle Capsules are also indicated for use as sole and adjunctive therapy in the treatment of simple and complex absence seizures, and adjunctively in patients with multiple seizure types that include absence seizures.
Simple absence is defined as very brief clouding of the sensorium or loss of consciousness accompanied by certain generalized epileptic discharges without other detectable clinical signs. Complex absence is the term used when other signs are also present.
Because of the risk to the fetus of decreased IQ, neural tube defects, and other major congenital malformations, which may occur very early in pregnancy, valproate should not be administered to a woman of childbearing potential unless the drug is essential to the management of her medical condition [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use In Specific Populations, and PATIENT INFORMATION].
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Depakote Sprinkle Capsules are administered orally. As Depakote dosage is titrated upward, concentrations of clonazepam, diazepam, ethosuximide, lamotrigine, tolbutamide, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and/or phenytoin may be affected [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Complex Partial Seizures
For adults and children 10 years of age or older.
Monotherapy (Initial Therapy)
Depakote Sprinkle Capsules has not been systematically studied as initial therapy. Patients should initiate therapy at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage should be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made.
The probability of thrombocytopenia increases significantly at total trough valproate plasma concentrations above 110 mcg/mL in females and 135 mcg/mL in males. The benefit of improved seizure control with higher doses should be weighed against the possibility of a greater incidence of adverse reactions.
Conversion To Monotherapy
Patients should initiate therapy at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage should be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50-100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made.
Concomitant antiepilepsy drug (AED) dosage can ordinarily be reduced by approximately 25% every 2 weeks. This reduction may be started at initiation of Depakote therapy, or delayed by 1 to 2 weeks if there is a concern that seizures are likely to occur with a reduction. The speed and duration of withdrawal of the concomitant AED can be highly variable, and patients should be monitored closely during this period for increased seizure frequency.
Depakote Sprinkle Capsules may be added to the patient's regimen at a dosage of 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made. If the total daily dose exceeds 250 mg, it should be given in divided doses.
In a study of adjunctive therapy for complex partial seizures in which patients were receiving either carbamazepine or phenytoin in addition to valproate, no adjustment of carbamazepine or phenytoin dosage was needed [see Clinical Studies]. However, since valproate may interact with these or other concurrently administered AEDs as well as other drugs, periodic plasma concentration determinations of concomitant AEDs are recommended during the early course of therapy [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Simple And Complex Absence Seizures
The recommended initial dose is 15 mg/kg/day, increasing at one week intervals by 5 to 10 mg/kg/day until seizures are controlled or side effects preclude further increases. The maximum recommended dosage is 60 mg/kg/day. If the total daily dose exceeds 250 mg, it should be given in divided doses.
A good correlation has not been established between daily dose, serum concentrations, and therapeutic effect. However, therapeutic valproate serum concentrations for most patients with absence seizures are considered to range from 50 to 100 mcg/mL. Some patients may be controlled with lower or higher serum concentrations [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
As the Depakote Sprinkle Capsules dosage is titrated upward, blood concentrations of phenobarbital and/or phenytoin may be affected [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Antiepilepsy drugs should not be abruptly discontinued in patients in whom the drug is administered to prevent major seizures because of the strong possibility of precipitating status epilepticus with attendant hypoxia and threat to life.
In epileptic patients previously receiving Depakene (valproic acid) therapy, Depakote Sprinkle Capsules should be initiated at the same daily dose and dosing schedule. After the patient is stabilized on Depakote Sprinkle Capsules, a dosing schedule of two or three times a day may be elected in selected patients.
General Dosing Advice
Dosing in Elderly Patients
Due to a decrease in unbound clearance of valproate and possibly a greater sensitivity to somnolence in the elderly, the starting dose should be reduced in these patients. Dosage should be increased more slowly and with regular monitoring for fluid and nutritional intake, dehydration, somnolence, and other adverse reactions. Dose reductions or discontinuation of valproate should be considered in patients with decreased food or fluid intake and in patients with excessive somnolence. The ultimate therapeutic dose should be achieved on the basis of both tolerability and clinical response [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use in Specific Populations and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Dose-Related Adverse Reactions
The frequency of adverse effects (particularly elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia) may be dose-related. The probability of thrombocytopenia appears to increase significantly at total valproate concentrations of ≥ 110 mcg/mL (females) or ≥ 135 mcg/mL (males) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. The benefit of improved therapeutic effect with higher doses should be weighed against the possibility of a greater incidence of adverse reactions.
Patients who experience G.I. irritation may benefit from administration of the drug with food or by slowly building up the dose from an initial low level.
Administration Of Sprinkle Capsules
Depakote Sprinkle Capsules may be swallowed whole or may be administered by carefully opening the capsule and sprinkling the entire contents on a small amount (teaspoonful) of soft food such as applesauce or pudding. The drug/food mixture should be swallowed immediately (avoid chewing) and not stored for future use. Each capsule is oversized to allow ease of opening.
Dosing In Patients Taking Rufinamide
Patients stabilized on rufinamide before being prescribed valproate should begin valproate therapy at a low dose, and titrate to a clinically effective dose [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Dosage Forms And Strengths
Depakote Sprinkle Capsules are for oral administration. Depakote Sprinkle Capsules contain specially coated particles of divalproex sodium equivalent to 125 mg of valproic acid in a hard gelatin capsule.
Storage And Handling
Depakote Sprinkle Capsules (divalproex sodium delayed release capsules), for oral use 125 mg, are white opaque and blue, and are supplied in bottles of 100 (NDC 0074-6114-13) and Unit Dose Packages of 100 (NDC 0074-6114-11).
Store capsules below 77°F (25°C).
Depakote ER: 250 mg is Mfd. by AbbVie LTD, Barceloneta, PR 00617, 500 mg is Mfd. by AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL 60064 U.S.A. or AbbVie LTD, Barceloneta, PR 00617. For AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL 60064 U.S.A. Depakote Tablets: Mfd. by AbbVie LTD, Barceloneta, PR 00617 For AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL 60064, U.S.A. Depakote Sprinkle Capsules: AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL 60064, U.S.A. Depakene Capsules: Mfd. by Banner Pharmacaps, Inc., High Point, NC 27265 U.S.A. For AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL 60064, U.S.A. Depakene Oral solution: Mfd. by AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL 60064, U.S.A. OR by DPT Laboratories, Ltd., San Antonio, TX 78215, U.S.A. For AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL 60064, U.S.A. Revised: February 2016 03-B306This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/7/2016
Additional Depakote Sprinkle Capsules Information
- Depakote Sprinkle Capsules Drug Interactions Center: divalproex oral
- Depakote Sprinkle Capsules Side Effects Center
- Depakote Sprinkle Capsules in detail including Side Effects and Drug Images
- Depakote Sprinkle Capsules Overview including Precautions
- Depakote Sprinkle Capsules FDA Approved Prescribing Information including Dosage
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