Depression in Children (cont.)
Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Depression in children facts
- What is childhood depression?
- What are the types of depression in children?
- What are causes and risk factors for depression in children?
- What are the symptoms and warning signs of depression in children?
- How is depression in children diagnosed?
- What should parents do if they suspect that their child is depressed?
- What is the treatment for depression in children?
- What are complications of depression in children?
- What is the prognosis of depression in children?
- Can depression in children be prevented?
- Where can families get support for a child with depression?
- Find a local Psychiatrist in your town
What are causes and risk factors for depression in children?
Depression in children does not have one single definitive cause. Rather, people with this illness tend to have a number of biological, psychological, and environmental risk factors that contribute to its development. Biologically, depression is associated with a reduced level of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain, a decrease in the size of some areas of the brain, as well as increased activity in other areas of the brain. Girls are more likely to be given the diagnosis of depression than boys, but that is thought to be the result of, among other things, a combination of biological differences based on gender, as well as the differences in how girls are encouraged to interpret their environment and respond to it compared to boys. There is thought to be at least a partially genetic contribution to the fact that children and adolescents with a depressed parent are up to four times more likely to develop the illness themselves. Children who develop depression are also more prone to having other biological challenges, such as low birth weight, trouble sleeping, and having a mother younger than 18 years old at the time of their birth.
Psychological risk factors for depression include low self-esteem, poor body image, a tendency to be highly self-critical, and feeling helpless when dealing with negative events. Children who suffer from conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), clinical anxiety, or who have cognitive or learning problems, as well as trouble relating to others also are at higher risk of developing depression.
Depression may be a reaction to environmental stresses, including trauma like verbal, physical, or sexual abuse, the death of a loved one, school problems, being the victim of bullying, or peer pressure. Research differs as to whether children that are obese are at higher risk of developing depression.
The aforementioned environmental risk factors tend to specifically predispose children to depression. Other risk factors tend to predispose people to depression as well as putting them at risk for other problems. Such risk factors to depression include poverty, exposure to violence, being socially isolated, parental conflict, divorce, and other reasons for family dissolution. Children who have low physical activity, poor academic performance, or lose a relationship are at higher risk for depression as well.
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