"April 9, 2012 -- Drugs that treat incontinence caused by an overactive bladder offer modest benefits to some women, and they often come with significant side effects, a new review of research shows.
The government-funded review compar"...
Anaphylaxis and angioedema requiring hospitalization and emergency medical treatment have occurred with the first or subsequent doses of DETROL LA. In the event of difficulty in breathing, upper airway obstruction, or fall in blood pressure, DETROL LA should be discontinued and appropriate therapy promptly provided.
Administer DETROL LA Capsules with caution to patients with clinically significant bladder outflow obstruction because of the risk of urinary retention [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Administer DETROL LA with caution in patients with gastrointestinal obstructive disorders because of the risk of gastric retention.
DETROL LA, like other antimuscarinic drugs, may decrease gastrointestinal motility and should be used with caution in patients with conditions associated with decreased gastrointestinal motility (e.g., intestinal atony) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Controlled Narrow-Angle Glaucoma
Administer DETROL LA with caution in patients being treated for narrow-angle glaucoma [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Central Nervous System Effects
Detrol LA is associated with anticholinergic central nervous system (CNS) effects [see ADVERSE REACTIONS] including dizziness and somnolence [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Patients should be monitored for signs of anticholinergic CNS effects, particularly after beginning treatment or increasing the dose. Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the drug's effects have been determined. If a patient experiences anticholinergic CNS effects, dose reduction or drug discontinuation should be considered.
The clearance of orally administered tolterodine immediate release was substantially lower in cirrhotic patients than in the healthy volunteers. For patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A or B), the recommended dose for DETROL LA is 2 mg once daily. DETROL LA is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use In Specific Populations ].
Renal impairment can significantly alter the disposition of tolterodine and its metabolites. The dose of DETROL LA should be reduced to 2 mg once daily in patients with severe renal impairment (CCr: 1030 mL/min). Patients with CCr < 10 mL/min have not been studied and use of DETROL LA in this population is not recommended [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use In Specific Populations].
Administer DETROL LA with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis, a disease characterized by decreased cholinergic activity at the neuromuscular junction.
Use in Patients with Congenital or Acquired QT Prolongation
In a study of the effect of tolterodine immediate release tablets on the QT interval [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], the effect on the QT interval appeared greater for 8 mg/day (two times the therapeutic dose) compared to 4 mg/day and was more pronounced in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PM) than extensive metabolizers (EMs). The effect of tolterodine 8 mg/day was not as large as that observed after four days of therapeutic dosing with the active control moxifloxacin. However, the confidence intervals overlapped.
These observations should be considered in clinical decisions to prescribe DETROL LA to patients with a known history of QT prolongation or to patients who are taking Class IA (e.g., quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic medications. There has been no association of Torsade de Pointes in the international post-marketing experience with DETROL or DETROL LA.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling.
Information for Patients
Patients should be informed that antimuscarinic agents such as DETROL LA may produce the following effects: blurred vision, dizziness, or drowsiness. Patients should be advised to exercise caution in decisions to engage in potentially dangerous activities until the drug's effects have been determined.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies with tolterodine were conducted in mice and rats. At the maximum tolerated dose in mice (30 mg/kg/day), female rats (20 mg/kg/day), and male rats (30 mg/kg/day), exposure margins were approximately 6-9 times, 7 times, and 11 times the clinical exposure to the pharmacologically active components of DETROL® LA (based on AUC of tolterodine and its 5-HMT metabolite). At these exposure margins, no increase in tumors was found in either mice or rats.
No mutagenic or genotoxic effects of tolterodine were detected in a battery of in vitro tests, including bacterial mutation assays (Ames test) in 4 strains of Salmonella typhimurium and in 2 strains of Escherichia coli, a gene mutation assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, and chromosomal aberration tests in human lymphocytes. Tolterodine was also negative in vivo in the bone marrow micronucleus test in the mouse.
In female mice treated for 2 weeks before mating and during gestation with 20 mg/kg/day (about 9-12 times the clinical exposure via AUC), neither effects on reproductive performance or fertility were seen. In male mice, a dose of 30 mg/kg/day did not induce any adverse effects on fertility.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
At approximately 9-12 times the clinical exposure to the pharmacologically active components of DETROL® LA, no anomalies or malformations were observed in mice (based on the AUC of tolterodine and its 5-HMT metabolite at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day). At 14-18 times the exposure (doses of 30 to 40 mg/kg/day) in mice, tolterodine has been shown to be embryolethal and reduce fetal weight, and increase the incidence of fetal abnormalities (cleft palate, digital abnormalities, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, and various skeletal abnormalities, primarily reduced ossification). Pregnant rabbits treated subcutaneously at about 0.3 - 2.5 times the clinical exposure (dose of 0.8 mg/kg/day) did not show any embryotoxicity or teratogenicity. There are no studies of tolterodine in pregnant women. Therefore, DETROL LA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit for the mother justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Tolterodine is excreted into the milk in mice. Offspring of female mice treated with tolterodine 20 mg/kg/day during the lactation period had slightly reduced body weight gain. The offspring regained the weight during the maturation phase.
It is not known whether tolterodine is excreted in human milk; therefore, DETROL LA should not be administered during nursing. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue DETROL LA in nursing mothers.
Efficacy in the pediatric population has not been demonstrated.
The pharmacokinetics of tolterodine extended release capsules have been evaluated in pediatric patients ranging in age from 11–15 years. The dose-plasma concentration relationship was linear over the range of doses assessed. Parent/metabolite ratios differed according to CYP2D6 metabolizer status [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers had low serum concentrations of tolterodine and high concentrations of the active metabolite 5-HMT, while poor metabolizers had high concentrations of tolterodine and negligible active metabolite concentrations.
A total of 710 pediatric patients (486 on DETROL LA, 224 on placebo) aged 5–10 with urinary frequency and urge incontinence were studied in two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 12-week studies. The percentage of patients with urinary tract infections was higher in patients treated with DETROL LA (6.6%) compared to patients who received placebo (4.5%). Aggressive, abnormal, and hyperactive behavior and attention disorders occurred in 2.9% of children treated with DETROL LA compared to 0.9% of children treated with placebo.
No overall differences in safety were observed between the older and younger patients treated with tolterodine.
In multiple-dose studies in which tolterodine immediate release 4 mg (2 mg bid) was administered, serum concentrations of tolterodine and of 5-HMT were similar in healthy elderly volunteers (aged 64 through 80 years) and healthy young volunteers (aged less than 40 years). In another clinical study, elderly volunteers (aged 71 through 81 years) were given tolterodine immediate release 2 or 4 mg (1 or 2 mg bid). Mean serum concentrations of tolterodine and 5-HMT in these elderly volunteers were approximately 20% and 50% higher, respectively, than concentrations reported in young healthy volunteers. However, no overall differences were observed in safety between older and younger patients on tolterodine in the Phase 3, 12-week, controlled clinical studies; therefore, no tolterodine dosage adjustment for elderly patients is recommended.
Renal impairment can significantly alter the disposition of tolterodine immediate release and its metabolites. In a study conducted in patients with creatinine clearance between 10 and 30 mL/min, tolterodine and 5-HMT levels were approximately 2–3 fold higher in patients with renal impairment than in healthy volunteers. Exposure levels of other metabolites of tolterodine (e.g., tolterodine acid, N-dealkylated tolterodine acid, Ndealkylated tolterodine, and N-dealkylated hydroxy tolterodine) were significantly higher (10–30 fold) in renally impaired patients as compared to the healthy volunteers. The recommended dose for patients with severe renal impairment (CCr: 10-30 mL/min) is DETROL LA 2 mg daily. Patients with CCr < 10 mL/min have not been studied and use of DETROL LA in this population is not recommended [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. DETROL LA has not been studied in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment [CCr 30-80 mL/min].
Liver impairment can significantly alter the disposition of tolterodine immediate release. In a study of tolterodine immediate release conducted in cirrhotic patients (Child-Pugh Class A and B), the elimination half-life of tolterodine immediate release was longer in cirrhotic patients (mean, 7.8 hours) than in healthy, young, and elderly volunteers (mean, 2 to 4 hours). The clearance of orally administered tolterodine immediate release was substantially lower in cirrhotic patients (1.0 ± 1.7 L/h/kg) than in the healthy volunteers (5.7 ± 3.8 L/h/kg). The recommended dose for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A or B) is DETROL LA 2 mg once daily. DETROL LA is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
The pharmacokinetics of tolterodine immediate release and 5-HMT are not influenced by gender. Mean Cmax of tolterodine immediate release (1.6 μg/L in males versus 2.2 μg/L in females) and the active 5-HMT (2.2 μg/L in males versus 2.5 μg/L in females) are similar in males and females who were administered tolterodine immediate release 2 mg. Mean AUC values of tolterodine (6.7 μg·h/L in males versus 7.8 μg·h/L in females) and 5-HMT (10 μg·h/L in males versus 11 μg·h/L in females) are also similar. The elimination half-life of tolterodine immediate release for both males and females is 2.4 hours, and the half-life of 5-HMT is 3.0 hours in females and 3.3 hours in males.
Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been established.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/5/2012
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