Diabetes Treatment (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What is the treatment for diabetes?
- Medications for type 2 diabetes
- Meglitinides - (Prandin and Starlix)
- Medications that decrease the amount of glucose produced by the liver
- Medications that increase glucose excretion by the kidney
- Medications that increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin (Actos and Avandia)
- Medications that decrease the absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine (Precose)
- Medications that affect glycemic control (Symlin, Byetta, Victoza, Bydureon)
- DPP-IV inhibitors
- Combination medications
- Treatment of diabetes with insulin
- Different methods of delivering insulin
- Pre-filled insulin pens
- Insulin pump
- Inhaled Insulin
- Intranasal, Transderm
- Diabetes diet
- The future of pancreas transplantation
- Find a local Endocrinologist in your town
The future of pancreas transplantation
Ultimately, the goal in the management of type 1 diabetes is to provide insulin therapy in a manner that mimics the natural pancreas. Perhaps the closest therapy available at this time is a transplant of the pancreas. Several approaches to pancreatic transplantation are currently being studied, including the whole pancreas and isolated islet cells (these groups of cells contain beta cells that are responsible for insulin production). Data available from 1995 indicates that almost 8,000 patients underwent pancreatic transplantation. Most patients undergo pancreatic transplantation at the time of kidney transplantation for diabetic kidney disease.
Transplantation is not without risk. Both the surgery itself and the immunosuppression that must occur afterward pose significant risks to the patient. For these reasons, the kidney and pancreas are usually transplanted at the same time. At present, there is disagreement about whole pancreas transplantation in patients not currently requiring kidney transplantation. The issue of whether the benefits outweigh the risks in these patients is under debate. There is also a chance that diabetes will occur in the transplanted pancreas. Selectively transplanting islet cells is an interesting alternative to whole pancreas transplantation. However, the concern over rejection remains. Attempts to disguise the islet cells in tissues that the body won't reject (for example, by surrounding the islet cells by the patient's own cells and then implanting them) are underway. In addition, researchers are exploring artificial barriers that can surround the islet cells, provide protection against rejection, and still allow insulin to enter the bloodstream.
A Final Word
These last few years have been an exciting time in diabetes care. Many agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes are under development and the options for insulin therapy continue to grow and methods for insulin delivery continue to become more refined. While research continues to expand in these areas, one thing remains constant. Achieving the best blood sugar control possible remains the ultimate goal in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We now know, beyond a doubt, that good blood sugar control minimizes the long-term complications of diabetes, including blindness, nerve damage, and kidney damage. Finally, a healthy lifestyle can do nothing bad...it should remain the cornerstone of management for diabetes.
American Diabetes Association.
FDA prescribing information.
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