Diabetes: Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Robert Ferry Jr., MD
Robert Ferry Jr., MD, is a U.S. board-certified Pediatric Endocrinologist. After taking his baccalaureate degree from Yale College, receiving his doctoral degree and residency training in pediatrics at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), he completed fellowship training in pediatric endocrinology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
- Diabetes home care management facts
- What is diabetes?
- What is the treatment for diabetes?
- Exercise therapy for diabetes
- Diet therapy for diabetes
- Diabetes and drug therapy
- How is diabetic treatment monitored at home?
- Blood glucose reagent strips
- Blood glucose meters
- Urine glucose tests
- Tests for urinary ketones
- Blood glucose
- Continuous glucose sensors (CGMS)
- Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) testing
- Find a local Endocrinologist in your town
Diabetes home care management facts
- Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
- The main types of diabetes mellitus are type 1 (insulin deficiency; formerly called juvenile diabetes) and type 2 (ineffective resistance).
- Treatment depends on the type and severity of diabetes.
- Type 1 diabetes requires insulin therapy as well as controlled nutrition and exercise.
- Type 2 diabetes is best treated with weight reduction, the proper diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures do not control the blood sugar, oral medications and/or injectable therapies (including insulin) are prescribed.
- The main goal of diabetes care is to control blood glucose levels in order to prevent the serious complications of diabetes. Glucose levels should be lowered into the normal range, while avoiding low blood sugar whenever possible. It is essential to monitor the effects of treatment on blood glucose levels to avoid overtreatment or undertreatment.
- Two kinds of home blood glucose monitoring exist. The first type uses a reagent strip. The second type uses a reagent strip and glucose meter. Use of the glucose meter has become more common due to higher reliability than strips alone. Glucose can also be measured in the urine but no longer has a significant role in home testing.
- Ketoacidosis is a serious but preventable complication from inadequate treatment of diabetes. This dangerous condition is identified by testing for the urine for ketones.
- People with diabetes should discuss monitoring in detail with their health-care professional, and have clearly defined goals for blood sugar control.
- Choices for blood glucose meters should be discussed with your physician and any caregivers. The optimal meter accounts for characteristics of the patient which impact usability, such as visual impairment, tremors, and other factors.
- Glucose sensors have improved dramatically in the last few years. These sensors provide strong options for patients to gain further insight into their glucose patterns in order to tailor more individual treatment regimens.
- People with diabetes should visit their health care professional every three months to monitor their hemoglobin A1c levels and to discuss their treatment plan.
- Good care of diabetes at home with appropriate monitoring, combined with timely visits to the health care team, make diabetes much more manageable. It is clear that good control of diabetes reduces the risk of developing the complications caused by diabetes, such as blindness and kidney failure.
Next: What is diabetes?
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