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Mechanism Of Action
DIANEAL is a pharmacologically inactive, hypertonic peritoneal dialysis solution containing dextrose, a monosaccharide, as the primary osmotic agent. An osmotic gradient must be created between the peritoneal membrane and the dialysis solution in order for ultrafiltration to occur. The hypertonic concentration of glucose in DIANEAL exerts an osmotic pressure across the peritoneal membrane resulting in transcapillary ultrafiltration. Like other peritoneal dialysis solutions, DIANEAL contains electrolytes to facilitate the correction of electrolyte abnormalities. DIANEAL contains a buffer, lactate, to help normalize acid-base abnormalities.
Glucose is rapidly absorbed from the peritoneal cavity by diffusion and appears quickly in the circulation due to the high glucose concentration gradient between DIANEAL compared to blood capillary glucose level. Absorption per unit time will be the highest at the start of an exchange and decreases over time. The rate of glucose absorption will be dependent upon the transport characteristics of the patient's peritoneal membrane as determined by a peritoneal equilibration test (PET). Glucose absorption will also depend upon the concentration of glucose used for the exchange and the length of the dwell. Transport of other molecules will be dependent upon the molecular size of the solute, the concentration gradient, and the effective peritoneal surface area as determined by the PET.
Metabolism And Elimination
Glucose is metabolized by normal cellular pathways (i.e., glycolysis). Metabolism of lactate occurs in the liver and results in the generation of the bicarbonate. Glucose not absorbed during PD exchange procedure is removed by drainage of the PD solution from the peritoneal cavity.
Drug Interaction Studies
No human drug interaction studies with heparin were conducted. In vitro studies demonstrated no evidence of incompatibility of heparin with DIANEAL.
No formal clinical drug interaction studies have been performed. In vitro studies of the following medications have demonstrated stability with DIANEAL: amphotericin B, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, deferoxamine, erythromycin, gentamicin, linezolid, mezlocillin, miconazole, moxifloxacin, nafcillin, ofloxacin, penicillin G, piperacillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ticarcillin, tobramycin, and vancomycin. However, aminoglycosides should not be mixed with penicillins due to chemical incompatibility.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/2/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Dianeal PD-1 Information
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