"Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to two population-based analyses published online January 11 in JAMA Internal Medicine. The authors suggest the widely used drugs "...
Peritoneal dialysis is indicated for patients in acute or chronic renal failure when nondialytic medical therapy is judged to be inadequate (Vaamonde and Perez 1977). It may also be indicated in the treatment of certain fluid and electrolyte disturbances, and for patients intoxicated with certain poisons and drugs (Knepshield et al. 1977). However, for many substances other methods of detoxification have been reported to be more effective than peritoneal dialysis (Vaamonde and Perez 1977; Chang 1977).
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DIANEAL PD-1 (peritoneal dialysis solution) solutions are intended for intraperitoneal administration only.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
The mode of therapy (Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis [IPD], Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis [CAPD], or Continuous Cyclic Peritoneal Dialysis [CCPD]), frequency of treatment, formulation, exchange volume, duration of dwell, and length of dialysis should be selected by the physician responsible for and supervising the treatment of the individual patient.
To avoid the risk of severe dehydration and hypovolemia and to minimize the loss of protein, it is advisable to select the peritoneal dialysis solution with the lowest level of osmolarity consistent with the fluid removal requirements for that exchange.
Peritoneal dialysis solutions may be warmed in the overpouch to 37°C (98.6°F) to enhance patient comfort. However, only dry heat (for example, heating pad) should be used. (See Directions for Use)
The addition of heparin to the dialysis solution may be indicated to aid in prevention of catheter blockage in patients with peritonitis, or when the solution drainage contains fibrinous or proteinaceous material (Ribot et al. 1966). 1000 to 2000 USP units of heparin per liter of solution has been recommended for adults (Furman et al. 1978). For children, 50 units of heparin per 100 mL of dialysis fluid has been recommended (Irwin et al. 1981).
Additives may be incompatible. Complete information is not available. Those additives known to be incompatible should not be used. Consult with pharmacist, if available. If, in the informed judgement of the physician, it is deemed advisable to introduce additives, use aseptic technique. Mix thoroughly when additives have been introduced. Do not store solutions containing additives.
Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis (IPD)
For dialysis of acute renal failure patients and maintenance dialysis of chronic renal failure patients The cycle of instillation, dwell and removal of dialysis fluid is repeated sequentially over a period of hours (8 to 36 hours) as many times per week as indicated by the condition of the patient. For chronic renal failure patients, maintenance dialysis is often accomplished by periodic dialysis (3 to 5 times weekly) for shorter time periods (8 to 14 hours per session) (Mattocks and El-Bassiouni 1971).
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and Continuous Cyclic Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD)
For maintenance dialysis of chronic renal failure patients
In CAPD, 1.5 to 3.0 liters of dialysis solution (depending upon patient size) are instilled into the peritoneal cavity of adults and the peritoneal access device is then clamped (Kim et al. 1984; Twardowski and Janicka 1981; Twardowski and Burrows 1984). For children, 30 to 50 mL/kg body weight with a maximum of 2 liters has been recommended (Potter et al. 1981; Irwin et al. 1981). The solution remains in the cavity for dwell times of 4 to 8 hours during the day and 8 to 12 hours overnight. At the conclusion of each dwell period, the access device is opened, the solution drained and fresh solution instilled. The procedure is repeated 3 to 5 times per day, 6 to 7 days per week. Solution exchange volumes and frequency of exchange should be individualized for adequate biochemical and fluid volume control (Moncrief et al. 1982; Twardowski et al. 1983). The majority of exchanges will utilize 1.5% or 2.5% dextrose containing peritoneal dialysis solutions, with 3.5% or 4.25% dextrose containing solutions being used when extra fluid removal is required. Patient weight is used as the indicator of the need for fluid removal (Popovich et al. 1978).
In CCPD, the patient receives 3 or 4 dialysis exchanges during the night which range from 2-1/2 to 3 hours dwell duration. Typically 1.5 to 2.0 liters of dialysis solution (depending upon patient size) are delivered each cycle by an automatic peritoneal dialysis cycler machine. After the last outflow during the night, an additional exchange is infused by the cycler machine into the peritoneum. The equipment is then disconnected from the patient, and the dialysate remains in the peritoneum for 14 to 15 hours during the day until the next nocturnal cycle (Diaz-Buxo et al. 1981). Combinations of 1.5% or 2.5% dextrose containing peritoneal dialysis solutions are usually used for the nighttime exchanges while 3.5% or 4.25% dextrose is used when extra fluid removal is required such as during the daytime exchange. Patient weight is used as the indicator of the need for fluid removal (Popovich et al. 1978) so therapy should be individualized according to the patients need for ultrafiltration.
It is recommended that adult patients being placed on chronic peritoneal dialysis or, in the case of pediatric patients, the selected caretaker, (as well as the patient, when suitable), should be appropriately trained in a program which is under the supervision of a physician. Training materials are available from Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL 60015, USA to facilitate this training.
DIANEAL PD-1 peritoneal dialysis solutions in AMBU-FLEX lll containers are available in nominal size flexible containers with fill volumes and dextrose concentrations as indicated in Table 1.
All DIANEAL PD-1 peritoneal dialysis solutions have overfills which are declared on container labeling.
Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. It is recommended the product be stored at room temperature (25°C/77°F): brief exposure up to 40°C (104°F) does not adversely affect the product.
Directions for Use
Use aseptic technique.
For complete system preparation, see directions accompanying ancillary equipment.
Peritoneal dialysis solutions may be warmed in the overpouch to 37°C (98.6°F) to enhance patient comfort. However, only dry heat (for example, heating pad) should be used. Solutions should not be heated in water due to an increased risk of infection. Microwave ovens should not be used to heat solutions because there is a potential for damage to the solution container. Moreover, microwave oven heating may potentially cause overheating and/or non-uniform heating of the solution that may result in patient injury or discomfort.
Tear overwrap down side at slit and remove solution container. Some opacity of the plastic due to moisture absorption during the sterilization process may be observed. This is normal and does not affect the solution quality or safety. If supplemental medication is desired, follow directions below before preparing for administration. Check for minute leaks by squeezing container firmly.
To Add Medication
Additives may be incompatible.
If the resealable rubber plug on the medication port is missing or partially removed, do not use product if medication is to be added.
1. Prepare medication site.
2. Using a syringe with a 1 inch long 19 to 25 gauge needle, puncture resealable medication port and inject.
3. Position container with ports up and evacuate the medication port by squeezing and tapping it.
4. Mix solution and medication thoroughly.
Preparation for Administration
1. Place container on table or suspend from support (depending on technique).
2. Remove protector from >outlet port of container.
3. Attach appropriate solution transfer set. Refer to complete directions in hardware manual and/or directions accompanying transfer set.
Discard unused portion.
Chang, T.M.S. 1977. Criteria, evaluation, and perspectives of various microencapsulated charcoal hemoperfusion systems. Dial and Transplant 6:50-53.
Diaz-Buxo, J.A. et al. 1981. Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis: a preliminary report. Int Soc Artif Organs 81:157-161.
Furman, K.l. et al. 1978. Activity of intraperitoneal heparin during peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 9:15-18.
Irwin, M.A. et al. 1981. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in pediatrics. AANNT J 8:11-13,44.
Kim, D. et al. 1984. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with three-liter exchanges: a prospective study. Peritoneal Dial Bull 4:82-85.
Knepshield, J.H. et al. 1977. Dialysis of poisons and drugs - update. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 23:762-842.
Mattocks, A.M. and El-Bassiouni, E.A. 1971. Peritoneal dialysis: a review. J Pharm Sci 60:1767-1782.
Moncrief, J.W. et al. 1982. CAPD: Are three exchanges per day adequate? AANNT J 9:39-43.
Popovich, R.P. et al. 1978. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Ann Intern Med 8:449-456.
Potter, D.E. et al. 1981. Continuous ambulatory dialysis (CAPD) in children. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 27:64-67.
Ribot, S. et al. 1966. Complications of peritoneal dialysis. Am J Med Sci 252:505-517.
Vaamonde, C.A. and Perez, G.O. 1977. Peritoneal dialysis today. Kidney 10:31-36.
Twardowski, Z.J. and Janicka, L. 1981. Three exchanges with a 2.5 liter volume for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 20:281-284.
Twardowski, Z.J. et al. 1983. High volume low frequency continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 23:64-70.
Twardowski, Z.J. and Burrows, L. 1984. Two year experience with high volume, low frequency continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal Dial Bull 4:S67.
Baxter, DIANEAL, AMBU-FLEX, and PL 146 are trademarks of Baxter International Inc.
Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Deerfield, IL 60015 USA
Printed in USA
Copyright 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1989, Baxter Healthcare Corporation. All rights reserved.
FDA rev date 9/05
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/25/2005
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