"Today the U.S. Food and Drug Administration allowed marketing of the NephroCheck test, a first-of-a-kind laboratory test to help determine if certain critically ill hospitalized patients are at risk of developing moderate to severe acute kidney i"...
Peritoneal dialysis is a procedure for removing toxic substances and metabolites normally excreted by the kidneys, and for aiding in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance.
The procedure is accomplished by instilling peritoneal dialysis fluid through a conduit into the peritoneal cavity. With the exception of lactate, present as a bicarbonate precursor, electrolyte concentrations in the fluid have been formulated to attempt to normalize plasma electrolyte concentrations resulting from osmosis and diffusion across the peritoneal membrane (between the plasma of the patient and the dialysis fluid). Toxic substances and metabolites, present in high concentrations in the blood, cross the peritoneal membrane into the dialyzing fluid. Dextrose in the dialyzing fluid is used to produce a solution hyperosmolar to the plasma, creating an osmotic gradient which facilitates fluid removal from the patient's plasma into the peritoneal cavity. After a period of time (dwell time), the fluid is drained from the cavity.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/17/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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