"Taking a widely used antidepressant during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for congenital and cardiac malformations, concludes a systematic review and meta-analysis by Canadian researchers.
Activities Requiring Mental Alertness
DICLEGIS may cause somnolence due to the anticholinergic properties of doxylamine succinate, an antihistamine. Women should avoid engaging in activities requiring complete mental alertness, such as driving or operating heavy machinery, while using DICLEGIS until cleared to do so by their healthcare provider.
DICLEGIS use is not recommended if a woman is concurrently using central nervous system (CNS) depressants including alcohol. The combination may result in severe drowsiness leading to falls or accidents [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Concomitant Medical Conditions
DICLEGIS has anticholinergic properties and, therefore, should be used with caution in women with: asthma, increased intraocular pressure, narrow angle glaucoma, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloroduodenal obstruction and urinary bladder-neck obstruction.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA -approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION)
Somnolence and Severe Drowsiness
Inform women to avoid engaging in activities requiring complete mental alertness, such as driving or operating heavy machinery, while using DICLEGIS until cleared to do so.
Inform women of the importance of not taking DICLEGIS with alcohol or sedating medications, including other antihistamines (present in some cough and cold medications), opiates and sleep aids because somnolence could worsen leading to falls or other accidents.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Two-year carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice have been conducted with doxylamine succinate. Doxylamine succinate is not likely to have human carcinogenic potential. The carcinogenic potential of pyridoxine hydrochloride has not been evaluated.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category A
DICLEGIS is intended for use in pregnant women.
The combination of doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride has been the subject of many epidemiological studies (cohort, case control and meta -analyses) designed to detect possible teratogenicity. A meta-analysis of 16 cohort and 11 case-control studies published between 1963 and 1991 reported no increased risk for malformations from first trimester exposures to doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride, with or without dicyclomine hydrochloride. A second meta-analysis of 12 cohort and 5 case-control studies published between 1963 and 1985 reported no statistically significant relationships between fetal abnormalities and the first trimester use of the combination doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride with or without dicyclomine hydrochloride.
The effects of doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride on embryofetal development have been studied in rats and monkeys.
Once daily treatment of pregnant rats with doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride during organogenesis (gestational day (GD) 615) resulted in increased fetal resorptions, decreased fetal body weight and increased skeletal variations with reduced ossification at doses 60 to 100 times the highest clinical dose based on body surface area.
Pregnant cynomolgus monkeys were treated once daily with doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride during organogenesis (GD 2250). At birth, there were no observed malformations, and no evidence of embryo, fetal or maternal toxicity at doses up to 3.2 times the highest proposed clinical dose based on body surface area. In a similarly designed study in pregnant cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys and baboons, ventricular septal defects (VSDs) were observed in the preterm (GD 100) fetuses. Doses used in this study were 0.5-20 times higher than the clinical dose based on body surface area, with no relationship between dose and incidence of VSD. There were no VSDs in infant monkeys at term. No VSDs were observed at GD 100 in cynomolgus monkeys administered the combination of doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride for 4-day periods between 22 and 41 days of gestation.
Women should not breastfeed while using DICLEGIS.
The molecular weight of doxylamine succinate is low enough that passage into breast milk can be expected. Excitement, irritability and sedation have been reported in nursing infants presumably exposed to doxylamine succinate through breast milk. Infants with apnea or other respiratory syndromes may be particularly vulnerable to the sedative effects of DICLEGIS resulting in worsening of their apnea or respiratory conditions.
Pyridoxine hydrochloride is excreted into breast milk. There have been no reports of adverse events in infants presumably exposed to pyridoxine hydrochloride through breast milk.
The safety and effectiveness of DICLEGIS in children under 18 years of age have not been established.
Fatalities have been reported from doxylamine overdose in children. The overdose cases have been characterized by coma, grand mal seizures and cardiorespiratory arrest. Children appear to be at a high risk for cardiorespiratory arrest. A toxic dose for children of more than 1.8 mg/kg has been reported. A 3 year old child died 18 hours after ingesting 1,000 mg doxylamine succinate. However, there is no correlation between the amount of doxylamine ingested, the doxylamine plasma level and clinical symptomatology.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/11/2013
Additional Diclegis Information
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