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Details with Side Effects
Not for Systemic Infections
Since there is minimal systemic absorption of fidaxomicin, DIFICID is not effective for treatment of systemic infections.
Acute hypersensitivity reactions, including dyspnea, rash, pruritus, and angioedema of the mouth, throat, and face have been reported with fidaxomicin. If a severe hypersensitivity reaction occurs, DIFICID should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted.
Some patients with hypersensitivity reactions also reported a history of allergy to other macrolides. Physicians prescribing DIFICID to patients with a known macrolide allergy should be aware of the possibility of hypersensitivity reactions.
Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Prescribing DIFICID in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected C. difficile infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug resistant bacteria.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility
Long-term carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of fidaxomicin.
Neither fidaxomicin nor OP-1118 was mutagenic in the Ames assay. Fidaxomicin was also negative in the rat micronucleus assay. However, fidaxomicin was clastogenic in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Fidaxomicin did not affect the fertility of male and female rats at intravenous doses of 6.3 mg/kg. The exposure (AUC0-t) was approximately 100 times that in humans.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits by the intravenous route at doses up to 12.6 and 7 mg/kg, respectively. The plasma exposures (AUC0-t) at these doses were approximately 200- and 66-fold that in humans, respectively, and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to fidaxomicin. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether fidaxomicin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when DIFICID is administered to a nursing woman.
The safety and effectiveness of DIFICID in patients < 18 years of age have not been established.
Of the total number of patients in controlled trials of DIFICID, 50% were 65 years of age and over, while 31% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness of fidaxomicin compared to vancomycin were observed between these subjects and younger subjects.
In controlled trials, elderly patients ( ≥ 65 years of age) had higher plasma concentrations of fidaxomicin and its main metabolite, OP-1118, versus non-elderly patients ( < 65 years of age) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. However, greater exposures in elderly patients were not considered to be clinically significant. No dose adjustment is recommended for elderly patients.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/18/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Dificid Information
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