"Medscape Medical News
August 22, 2016
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved an oral, abuse-deterrent, extended-release (ER) formulation of oxycodone hydrochloride and naltrexone hydrochloride"...
Risk Of Medication Errors
DILAUDID-HP INJECTION is a 10 mg/mL concentrated solution of hydromorphone, and is intended for use in opioid-tolerant patients only. Patients considered opioid tolerant are those who are taking at least 60 mg oral morphine/day, 25 mcg transdermal fentanyl/hour, 30 mg oral oxycodone/day, 8 mg oral hydromorphone/day, 25 mg oral oxymorphone/day, or an equianalgesic dose of another opioid for one week or longer.
Do not confuse DILAUDID-HP INJECTION with standard parenteral formulations of DILAUDID INJECTION (0.5 mg/0.5 mL, 1 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL) or other opioids, as overdose and death could result.
Addiction, Abuse, And Misuse
DILAUDID INJECTION and DILAUDID-HP INJECTION contain hydromorphone, a Schedule II controlled substance. As an opioid, DILAUDID INJECTION and DILAUDID-HP INJECTION exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Drug Abuse And Dependence].
Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION. Addiction can occur at recommended dosages and if the drug is misused or abused.
Assess each patient’s risk for opioid addiction, abuse, or misuse prior to prescribing DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION, and monitor all patients receiving DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION for the development of these behaviors and conditions. Risks are increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (e.g., major depression). The potential for these risks should not, however, prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Patients at increased risk may be prescribed opioids such as DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION, but use in such patients necessitates intensive counseling about the risks and proper use of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION along with intensive monitoring for signs of addiction, abuse, and misuse.
Opioids are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity. Contact local state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the use of opioids, even when used as recommended. Respiratory depression, if not immediately recognized and treated, may lead to respiratory arrest and death. Management of respiratory depression may include close observation, supportive measures, and use of opioid antagonists, depending on the patient’s clinical status [see OVERDOSE]. Carbon dioxide (CO2) retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.
While serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression can occur at any time during the use of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION, the risk is greatest during the initiation of therapy or following a dosage increase. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24-72 hours of initiating therapy with and following dosage increases of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION.
To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDIDHP INJECTION are essential [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Overestimating the DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION dosage when converting patients from another opioid product can result in a fatal overdose with the first dose.
DILAUDID-HP INJECTION is for use in opioid-tolerant patients only. Administration of this formulation may cause fatal respiratory depression when administered to patients who are not tolerant to the respiratory depressant effects of opioids.
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Prolonged use of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION during pregnancy can result in withdrawal in the neonate. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, unlike opioid withdrawal syndrome in adults, may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. Observe newborns for signs of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly. Advise pregnant women using opioids for a prolonged period of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Use In Specific Populations, PATIENT INFORMATION].
Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants
Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result from the concomitant use of DILAUDID or DILAUDID-HP Injection with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (e.g., non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol). Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioid analgesics alone. Because of similar pharmacological properties, it is reasonable to expect similar risk with the concomitant use of other CNS depressant drugs with opioid analgesics [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
If the decision is made to prescribe a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant concomitantly with an opioid analgesic, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant than indicated in the absence of an opioid, and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid analgesic is initiated in a patient already taking a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid analgesic, and titrate based on clinical response. Follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when DILAUDID or DILAUDID-HP Injection is used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (including alcohol and illicit drugs). Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant have been determined. Screen patients for risk of substance use disorders, including opioid abuse and misuse, and warn them of the risk for overdose and death associated with the use of additional CNS depressants including alcohol and illicit drugs [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and PATIENT INFORMATION].
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression In Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease Or In Elderly, Cachectic, Or Debilitated Patients
The use of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated.
Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease
DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosages of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION [see Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression].
Elderly, Cachectic, Or Debilitated Patients
Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients [see Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression].
Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION and when DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION are given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration [see Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression]. Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.
Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include non-specific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.
DILAUDID INJECTION and DILAUDID-HP INJECTION may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION. In patients with circulatory shock, DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION in patients with circulatory shock.
Risks Of Use In Patients With Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, Or Impaired Consciousness
In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION.
Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.
Risks Of Use In Patients With Gastrointestinal Conditions
The hydromorphone in DILAUDID INJECTION and DILAUDID-HP INJECTION may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis, for worsening symptoms.
Increased Risk Of Seizures In Patients With Seizure Disorders
The hydromorphone in DILAUDID INJECTION and DILAUDID-HP INJECTION may increase the frequency of seizures in patients with seizure disorders, and may increase the risk of seizures occurring in other clinical settings associated with seizures. Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION therapy.
Avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including DILAUDID INJECTION and DILAUDID-HP INJECTION. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
When discontinuing DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION, in a physically-dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Do not abruptly discontinue DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION in these patients [see Drug Abuse And Dependence].
Risks Of Driving And Operating Machinery
DILAUDID INJECTION and DILAUDID-HP INJECTION may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION and know how they will react to the medication [see PATIENT INFORMATION].
DILAUDID INJECTION and DILAUDID-HP INJECTION contain sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.
Increased Risk Of Hypotension And Respiratory Depression With Rapid Intravenous Administration
DILAUDID INJECTION and DILAUDID-HP INJECTION may be given intravenously, but the injection should be given very slowly. Rapid intravenous injection of opioid analgesics increases the possibility of side effects such as hypotension and respiratory depression [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of hydromorphone have not been conducted.
Hydromorphone was positive in the mouse lymphoma assay in the presence of metabolic activation, but was negative in the mouse lymphoma assay in the absence of metabolic activation. Hydromorphone was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames assay). Hydromorphone was not clastogenic in either the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay or the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.
Impairment Of Fertility
Reduced implantation sites and viable fetuses were noted at 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day in a study in which female rats were treated orally with 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day hydromorphone hydrochloride (0.5, 1.1, or 2.1 times a human daily dose of 24 mg/day (HDD) based on body surface area) beginning 14 days prior to mating through Gestation Day 7 and male rats were treated with the same hydromorphone hydrochloride doses beginning 28 days prior to and throughout mating.
Use In Specific Populations
Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. There are no available data with DILAUDID injection in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage.
In animal reproduction studies, reduced postnatal survival of pups, and decreased were noted following oral treatment of pregnant rats with hydromorphone during gestation and through lactation at doses 0.8 times the human daily dose of 24 mg/day (HDD), respectively. In published studies, neural tube defects were noted following subcutaneous injection of hydromorphone to pregnant hamsters at doses 6.4 times the HDD and soft tissue and skeletal abnormalities were noted following subcutaneous continuous infusion of 3 times the HDD to pregnant mice. No malformations were noted at 4 or 40.5 times the HDD in pregnant rats or rabbits, respectively [see Data]. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth.
Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Labor or Delivery
Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION is not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION, can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression.
Pregnant rats were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 6 to 17 via oral gavage doses of 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day (0.4, 2, or 4 times the HDD of 24 mg based on body surface area, respectively). Maternal toxicity was noted in all treatment groups (reduced food consumption and body weights in the two highest dose groups). There was no evidence of malformations or embryotoxicity reported.
Pregnant rabbits were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 7 to 19 via oral gavage doses of 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day (8.1, 20.3, or 40.5 times the HDD of 24 mg based on body surface area, respectively). Maternal toxicity was noted in the two highest dose groups (reduced food consumption and body weights). There was no evidence of malformations or embryotoxicity reported.
In a published study, neural tube defects (exencephaly and cranioschisis) were noted following subcutaneous administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride (19 to 258 mg/kg) on Gestation Day 8 to pregnant hamsters (6.4 to 87.2 times the HDD of 24 mg/day based on body surface area). The findings cannot be clearly attributed to maternal toxicity. No neural tube defects were noted at 14 mg/kg (4.7 times the human daily dose of 24 mg/day).
In a published study, CF-1 mice were treated subcutaneously with continuous infusion of 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day hydromorphone hydrochloride (1.5, 3, or 6.1 times the human daily dose of 24 mg based on body surface area) via implanted osmotic pumps during organogenesis (Gestation Days 7 to 10). Soft tissue malformations (cryptorchidism, cleft palate, malformed ventricles and retina), and skeletal variations (split supraoccipital, checkerboard and split sternebrae, delayed ossification of the paws and ectopic ossification sites) were observed at doses 3 times the human dose of 24 mg/day based on body surface area. The findings cannot be clearly attributed to maternal toxicity.
Increased pup mortality and decreased pup body weights were noted at 0.8 and 2 times the human daily dose of 24 mg in a study in which pregnant rats were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 7 to Lactation Day 20 via oral gavage doses of 0, 0.5, 2, or 5 mg/kg/day (0.2, 0.8, or 2 times the HDD of 24 mg based on body surface area, respectively). Maternal toxicity (decreased food consumption and body weight gain) was also noted at the two highest doses tested.
Low levels of opioid analgesics have been detected in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitor infants exposed to DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of hydromorphone is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Nonclinical Toxicology].
The safety and effectiveness of DILAUDID INJECTION and DILAUDID-HP INJECTION in pediatric patients has not been established.
Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to hydromorphone. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of DILAUDID INJECTION or DILAUDID-HP INJECTION slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Hydromorphone is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
The pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone are affected by hepatic impairment. Due to increased exposure of hydromorphone, patients with moderate hepatic impairment should be started at one-fourth to one-half the recommended starting dose depending on the degree of hepatic dysfunction and closely monitored during dose titration. The pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone in patients with severe hepatic impairment has not been studied. A further increase in Cmax and AUC of hydromorphone in this group is expected and should be taken into consideration when selecting a starting dose [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone are affected by renal impairment. Start patients with renal impairment on one-fourth to one-half the usual starting dose depending on the degree of impairment. Patients with renal impairment should be closely monitored during dose titration [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/20/2017
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