"April 9, 2012 -- Drugs that treat incontinence caused by an overactive bladder offer modest benefits to some women, and they often come with significant side effects, a new review of research shows.
The government-funded review compar"...
Angioedema of the face, lips, tongue and/or larynx has been reported with oxybutynin. In some cases, angioedema occurred after the first dose. Angioedema associated with upper airway swelling may be life-threatening. If involvement of the tongue, hypopharynx, or larynx occurs, oxybutynin should be promptly discontinued and appropriate therapy and/or measures necessary to ensure a patent airway should be promptly provided.
Central Nervous System Effects
Oxybutynin is associated with anticholinergic central nervous system (CNS) effects (See ADVERSE REACTIONS). A variety of CNS anticholinergic effects have been reported, including hallucinations, agitation, confusion and somnolence. Patients should be monitored for signs of anticholinergic CNS effects, particularly in the first few months after beginning treatment or increasing the dose. If a patient experiences anticholinergic CNS effects, dose reduction or drug discontinuation should be considered.
DITROPAN should be used with caution in patients with preexisting dementia treated with cholinesterase inhibitors due to the risk of aggravation of symptoms.
DITROPAN may aggravate the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, hiatal hernia, tachycardia, hypertension, myasthenia gravis, and prostatic hypertrophy.
DITROPAN should be administered with caution to patients with gastrointestinal obstructive disorders because of the risk of gastric retention (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Administration of DITROPAN to patients with ulcerative colitis may suppress intestinal motility to the point of producing a paralytic ileus and precipitate or aggravate toxic megacolon, a serious complication of the disease.
DITROPAN, like other anticholinergic drugs, may decrease gastrointestinal motility and should be used with caution in patients with conditions such as ulcerative colitis, and intestinal atony.
DITROPAN should be used with caution in patients who have gastroesophageal reflux and/or who are concurrently taking drugs (such as bisphosphonates) that can cause or exacerbate esophagitis.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
A 24-month study in rats at dosages of oxybutynin chloride of 20, 80, and 160 mg/kg/day showed no evidence of carcinogenicity. These doses are approximately 6, 25, and 50 times the maximum human exposure, based on surface area.
Oxybutynin chloride showed no increase of mutagenic activity when tested in Schizosaccharomyces pompholiciformis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Salmonella typhimurium test systems.
Reproduction studies using oxybutynin chloride in the hamster, rabbit, rat, and mouse have shown no definite evidence of impaired fertility.
Category B. Reproduction studies using oxybutynin chloride in the hamster, rabbit, rat, and mouse have shown no definite evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the animal fetus. The safety of DITROPAN administered to women who are or who may become pregnant has not been established. Therefore, DITROPAN should not be given to pregnant women unless, in the judgment of the physician, the probable clinical benefits outweigh the possible hazards.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when DITROPAN is administered to a nursing woman.
The safety and efficacy of DITROPAN administration have been demonstrated for pediatric patients 5 years of age and older (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
The safety and efficacy of DITROPAN Tablets were studied in 30 children in a 24week, open-label trial. Patients were aged 5-15 years, all had symptoms of detrusor overactivity in association with a neurological condition (e.g., spina bifida), all used clean intermittent catheterization, and all were current users of oxybutynin chloride. Study results demonstrated that the administration of DITROPAN was associated with improvement in clinical and urodynamic parameters.
At total daily doses ranging from 5 mg to 15 mg, treatment with DITROPAN Tablets was associated with an increase from baseline in mean urine volume per catheterization from 122 mL to 145 mL, an increase from baseline in mean urine volume after morning awakening from 148 mL to 168 mL, and an increase from baseline in the mean percentage of catheterizations without a leaking episode from 43% to 61%. Urodynamic results in these patients were consistent with the clinical results. Treatment with DITROPAN Tablets was associated with an increase from baseline in maximum cystometric capacity from 230 mL to 279 mL, a decrease from baseline in mean detrusor pressure at maximum cystometric capacity from 36 cm H2O to 33 cm H2O, and a reduction in the percentage of patients demonstrating uninhibited detrusor contractions (of at least 15 cm H2O) from 39% to 20%.
As there is insufficient clinical data for pediatric populations under age 5, DITROPAN is not recommended for this age group.
Clinical studies of DITROPAN did not include sufficient numbers of subjects age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between healthy elderly and younger patients; however, a lower initial starting dose of 2.5 mg given 2 or 3 times a day has been recommended for the frail elderly due to a prolongation of the elimination half-life from 2-3 hours to 5 hours.2,3,4 In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
2. Hughes KM et al. Measurement of oxybutynin and its N-desethyl metabolite in plasma, and its application to pharmacokinetic studies in young, elderly and frail elderly volunteers. Xenobiotica. 1992; 22 (7): 859-869.
3. Ouslander J et al. Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Effects of Oxybutynin in Geriatric Patients. J. Urol. 1988; 140: 47-50.
4. Yarker Y et al. Oxybutynin: A review of its Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Properties, and its Therapeutic Use in Detrusor Instability. Drugs & Aging. 1995; 6(3): 243-262.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/2/2012
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