"April 9, 2012 -- Drugs that treat incontinence caused by an overactive bladder offer modest benefits to some women, and they often come with significant side effects, a new review of research shows.
The government-funded review compar"...
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Details with Side Effects
Angioedema of the face, lips, tongue and/or larynx has been reported with oxybutynin. In some cases, angioedema occurred after the first dose. Angioedema associated with upper airway swelling may be life-threatening. If involvement of the tongue, hypopharynx, or larynx occurs, oxybutynin should be promptly discontinued and appropriate therapy and/or measures necessary to ensure a patent airway should be promptly provided.
Central Nervous System Effects
Oxybutynin is associated with anticholinergic central nervous system (CNS) effects (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). A variety of CNS anticholinergic effects have been reported, including hallucinations, agitation, confusion and somnolence. Patients should be monitored for signs of anticholinergic CNS effects, particularly in the first few months after beginning treatment or increasing the dose. If a patient experiences anticholinergic CNS effects, dose reduction or drug discontinuation should be considered.
DITROPAN XL® should be used with caution in patients with preexisting dementia treated with cholinesterase inhibitors due to the risk of aggravation of symptoms.
DITROPAN XL® (oxybutynin chloride) should be used with caution in patients with hepatic or renal impairment and in patients with myasthenia gravis due to the risk of symptom aggravation.
DITROPAN XL® should be administered with caution to patients with clinically significant bladder outflow obstruction because of the risk of urinary retention (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
DITROPAN XL® should be administered with caution to patients with gastrointestinal obstructive disorders because of the risk of gastric retention (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
DITROPAN XL®, like other anticholinergic drugs, may decrease gastrointestinal motility and should be used with caution in patients with conditions such as ulcerative colitis and intestinal atony.
As with any other nondeformable material, caution should be used when administering DITROPAN XL® to patients with preexisting severe gastrointestinal narrowing (pathologic or iatrogenic). There have been rare reports of obstructive symptoms in patients with known strictures in association with the ingestion of other drugs in nondeformable controlled-release formulations.
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies with oxybutynin chloride in the mouse, rat, hamster, and rabbit showed no definite evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the animal fetus. The safety of DITROPAN XL® administration to women who are or who may become pregnant has not been established. Therefore, DITROPAN XL® should not be given to pregnant women unless, in the judgment of the physician, the probable clinical benefits outweigh the possible hazards.
It is not known whether oxybutynin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when DITROPAN XL® is administered to a nursing woman.
The safety and efficacy of DITROPAN XL® were studied in 60 children in a 24-week, open-label trial. Patients were aged 6-15 years, all had symptoms of detrusor overactivity in association with a neurological condition (e.g., spina bifida), all used clean intermittent catheterization, and all were current users of oxybutynin chloride. Study results demonstrated that administration of DITROPAN XL® 5 to 20 mg/day was associated with an increase from baseline in mean urine volume per catheterization from 108 mL to 136 mL, an increase from baseline in mean urine volume after morning awakening from 148 mL to 189 mL, and an increase from baseline in the mean percentage of catheterizations without a leaking episode from 34% to 51%.
Urodynamic results were consistent with clinical results. Administration of DITROPAN XL® resulted in an increase from baseline in mean maximum cystometric capacity from 185 mL to 254 mL, a decrease from baseline in mean detrusor pressure at maximum cystometric capacity from 44 cm H2O to 33 cm H2O, and a reduction in the percentage of patients demonstrating uninhibited detrusor contractions (of at least 15 cm H2O) from 60% to 28%.
DITROPAN XL® is not recommended in pediatric patients who cannot swallow the tablet whole without chewing, dividing, or crushing, or in children under the age of 6 (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
The rate and severity of anticholinergic effects reported by patients less than 65 years old and those 65 years and older were similar (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Special Populations: Geriatric).
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/26/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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