Domestic Violence (cont.)
Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Domestic violence facts
- What is domestic violence? What are the types of domestic violence?
- What is the history of domestic violence?
- What are the effects of domestic abuse?
- What are the causes or risk factors for intimate partner violence?
- What are the warning signs and symptoms of intimate partner abuse?
- How is domestic violence assessed?
- How is intimate partner violence treated?
- How is intimate partner abuse legally addressed?
- What is the prognosis for domestic violence?
- How can intimate partner abuse be prevented and stopped?
- Where can people get help for domestic violence?
How can intimate partner abuse be prevented and stopped?
Effective solutions for preventing intimate partner abuse include providing economic opportunity, mentors, role models who are survivors of domestic violence, organized community programs for youth and families and a school environment that promotes prevention of abusiveness in any relationship. Adult family members can help prevent domestic violence by being nurturing and by providing consistent, structured supervision. Raising the awareness about intimate partner violence in society at large, as occurs during Domestic Violence Awareness Month each October, can be invaluable to educating people about this issue.
According to the House of Ruth, a domestic violence center, everyone can help find ways to stop domestic violence, either by donating money or time to a domestic-violence organization, learning more about the problem, teaching children about healthy versus abusive relationships, listening in a nonjudgmental way to a domestic violence victim when he or she shares what they are going through, and giving victims information about where to get help. Supporters of intimate partner abuse victims can also discourage sexist jokes and remarks, boycott movies that gratuitously depict intimate partner violence and violence against women, and write legislators to support laws that protect and otherwise support intimate violence sufferers. Advocacy can further involve encouraging one's own health-care providers to post and share information about the issue. In the workplace, those who want to help stop to domestic abuse can organize a drive or fundraiser for goods or money to give to a domestic-violence organization.
Where can people get help for domestic violence?
American Domestic Violence Crisis Line
3300 N.W. 185th Street, Suite 133
Portland, OR 97229
Toll-free: 1-866-USWOMEN (International Crisis Line)
The American Domestic Violence Crisis Line provides safety planning, support services, and general information on domestic violence for American women living overseas who are victims of domestic violence.
Communities United Against Violence
160 14th Street
San Francisco, CA 94103
Support Line: 415-333-HELP
Communities United Against Violence offers crisis intervention, counseling, advocacy, and support for gay men and lesbians in abusive relationships.
Domestic Violence Law Project
GLBT National Help Center
House of Ruth
5 Thomas Circle, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005
234 East Gish Road #200
San Jose, CA 95112
Toll-free hotline: 1-888-8-MAITRI
Maitri helps South Asian (Bengali, Indian, Pakistani, and Sri Lankan) women with domestic violence, emotional abuse, and family conflict.
National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs
National Domestic Violence Hotline
The 24-hour, toll-free hotline provides crisis intervention, referrals to battered women's shelters and programs, social-service agencies, legal programs, and other groups and organizations willing to help, and resources for battered women and their friends and families.
National Resource Center on Domestic Violence
6400 Flank Drive, Suite 1300
Harrisburg, PA 17112
1-800-537-2238 ext. 5
The Network La Red
P.O. Box 6011
Boston, MA 02114
The Network La Red offers bilingual (English and Spanish) information and resources for lesbian and bisexual women in violent relationships.
Reconstructive Surgery/Domestic Abuse Line
Reconstructive Surgery/Domestic Abuse Line provides free reconstructive surgery for male and female victims of domestic violence.
Provides case management, individual counseling, and support groups for domestic violence victims
955 Mass Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139
Toll-free Crisis Line: 1-800-832-1901
Violence Project offers information and resources for gay men in violent relationships.
The future of finding solutions to domestic violence includes continuing to improve the effectiveness of treatment and to strengthen legal protection for victims, as well as accountability and treatment for abusers. Those goals should expand effective treatment and legal protections to address cyber-stalking and to manage the unique issues faced by individuals who are in gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender relationships.
Abuse, Rape, Domestic Violence Aid and Resource Collection: AARDVARC. GLBT Domestic Violence: Similarities and Differences. March 2007. Abuse, Rape, Domestic Violence Aid and Resource Collection: AARDVARC. Warning signs of domestic violence. July 2007.
Anda, R.F., C.L. Whitfield, V.J. Felitti, et al. "Adverse childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression." Psychiatric Services 53 Aug. 2002: 1001-1009.
Attorney General of the United States. Cyberstalking: A new challenge for law enforcement and industry. 1999 Report on Cyberstalking 1999 August.
Bailey, J.E., Kellermann, A.L., Somes, G.W., Banton, J.G., Rivara, F.P., and Rushforth, N.P. Risk factors for violent death of women in the home. Archives of Internal Medicine, Volume 157(7), April 1997.
Carswell, S. Historical development of the pro-arrest policy, in: Family Violence and the Pro-arrest Policy: A Literature Review. New Zealand Ministry of Justice 2006 December.
Carter, J. Domestic violence, child abuse and youth violence: strategies for prevention and early intervention. March 2005.
Coker, A.L., Smith, P.H., McKeown, R.E., and King, M.J. Frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type: physical, sexual and psychological battering. American Journal of Public Health. 2000 April; 90 (4): 553-559.
De Benedictis, T., Jaffe, J., and Segal, J. Domestic violence and abuse: types, signs, symptoms, causes and effects. The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, 2006.
Durborow, N., K.C. Lizdas, A. O'Flaherty, et al. Compendium of State Statutes and Policies on Domestic Violence and Health Care. Family Violence Prevention Fund: San Francisco, CA; 2010.
Ellison, C.G., Bartkowski, J.P., and Anderson, K.L. Are there religious variations in domestic violence? Journal of Family Issues. Volume 20(1), 87-113. 1999.
Fernandez, F.M., and Krueger, P.M. Domestic violence: effect on pregnancy outcome. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, Volume 99 (5), 254. 1999.
Friedmann, M.D. Barriers to screening for domestic violence. Journal of General Internal Medicine, Volume 17(2): 112-116, February 2002.
Goldsmith, T.D. Self quiz: am I in an abusive relationship? PsychCentral, October 19, 2006.
Gordon, J.A., and Moriarty, L.J. The effects of domestic violence batterer treatment on domestic violence recidivism. Criminal Justice and Behavior, Volume 30(1), 118-134 2003.
Groban, M.S. The federal domestic violence laws and the enforcement of these laws. Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse 2005.
Heru, A.M. New findings in intimate partner violence. Psychiatric Times 2008 August, 25(9).
House of Ruth. Ways to stop domestic violence. http://www.houseofruth.org, 2007.
Johnson, J. Relationship abuse, intimate partner violence and domestic violence threaten individuals and society. Planned Parenthood Federation of America. 2005.
Koenen, K.C., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., & Purcell, S. Domestic violence is associated with environmental suppression of IQ in young children. Development and Psychopathology, Volume 15: 297-311, 2003.
Kyriacou, D.N., Anglin, D., Taliaferro, E., Stone, S., Tubb, T., Linden, J.A., et al. Risk factors for injury to women from domestic violence. New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 341: 1892-1898. December 16, 1999.
Lehmann, C. Domestic violence overlooked in same-sex couples. Psychiatric News; American Psychiatric Association, Volume 37 (12): p. 22. June 21, 2002.
Mayell, H. Thousands of women killed for family "honor." National Geographic. February 12, 2002.
Moran, M. Partner abuse more common in adults with disorders as teens. Psychiatric News, Volume 41 (11), page 25; June 2, 2006.
Murphy, C.M., O'Farrell, T.J., and Hutton, V.V. Domestic violence before and after alcoholism treatment: a two-year longitudinal study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Volume 60, 1999.
Murty, S.A., Peek-Asa, C., Zwerdling, C., Stromquist, A.M., Burmeister, L.F., and Merchant, J.A. Physical and emotional partner abuse reported by men and women in a rural community. American Public Health Association 2003.
National Women's History Project. firstname.lastname@example.org Timeline of legal history of women in the United States. A Timeline of the Women's Rights Movement 1848-1998. 2002.
O'Leary, K.D. Psychological abuse: a variable deserving critical attention in domestic violence. Violence Victimization, Volume 14 (1): 3-23. 1999.
Rodriguez, M.A., McLoughlin, E., Nah, G., and Campbell, J.C. Mandatory reporting of domestic violence injuries to the police: What do emergency department patients think? Journal of the American Medical Association. 286: 580-583. 2001.
Rudolph, M.N., and Hughes, D.H. Emergency psychiatry: emergency assessments of domestic violence, sexual dangerousness, and elder and child abuse. Psychiatric Services 52: 281-306, March 2001. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Crime definitions. 2006.
Silverman, J.G., Mesh, C.M., Cuthbert, C.V., Slote, K., and Bancroft, L. Child custody determinations in cases involving intimate partner violence: a human rights analysis. American Journal of Public Health 2004 June: 94(6): 951-957.
Sullivan, C.M., and Bybee, D.I. Reducing violence using community-based advocacy for women with abusive partners. Journal of Consultation in Clinical Psychology. Feb; 67(1): 43-53, 1999.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Intimate partner violence: an overview." August 2006.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Physical dating violence among high school students-United States, 2003." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55(10), 532-535, May 2006.
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Violence Against Women Office. Stalking violence. Report to Congress, May 2001.
Vachss, A. Domestic violence U.S. resources. The Zero. 1996-2007.
Washington State University. Domestic violence in the workplace guide. Human Resource Services. 2007.
Find out what women really need.