Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms of overdosage are extensions of the pharmacologic effects of the drug. Excessive pressor effect, such as hypertension, tachycardia, skeletal muscle hyperactivity, and enhanced deep tendon reflexes may be early signs of overdosage. Therefore, the blood pressure, pulse rate, and deep tendon reflexes should be evaluated periodically and the dosage or infusion rate adjusted accordingly.
Convulsive seizures are unlikely at recommended dosages. In unanesthetized animals, the convulsant dose is 70 times greater than the respiratory stimulant dose. Intravenous LD50 values in the mouse and rat were approximately 75 mg/kg and in the cat and dog were 40 to 80 mg/kg.
There is no specific antidote for doxapram. Management should be symptomatic. Anticonvulsants, along with oxygen and resuscitative equipment should be readily available to manage overdosage manifested by excessive central nervous system stimulation. Slow administration of the drug and careful observation of the patient during administration and for some time subsequently are advisable. These precautions are to assure that the protective reflexes have been restored and to prevent possible post-hyperventilation or hypoventilation.
There is no evidence that doxapram is dialyzable; further, the half-life of doxapram makes it unlikely that dialysis would be appropriate in managing overdose with this drug.
Doxapram is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug or any of the injection components.
Doxapram should not be used in patients with epilepsy or other convulsive disorders.
Doxapram is contraindicated in patients with proven or suspected pulmonary embolism.
Doxapram is contraindicated in patients with mechanical disorders of ventilation such as mechanical obstruction, muscle paresis (including neuromuscular blockade), flail chest, pneumothorax, acute bronchial asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, or other conditions resulting in restriction of the chest wall, muscles of respiration, or alveolar expansion.
Doxapram is contraindicated in patients with evidence of head injury, cerebral vascular accident, or cerebral edema, and in those with significant cardiovascular impairment, uncompensated heart failure, severe coronary artery disease, or severe hypertension, including that associated with hyperthyroidism or pheochromocytoma. (See WARNINGS.)
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/5/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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