"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Avycaz (ceftazidime-avibactam), a new antibacterial drug product, to treat adults with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), in combination with metronidazole, and complicated urinary "...
Increased Mortality In Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia
In a clinical trial of patients with ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia comparing doripenem to imipenem, more subjects receiving doripenem died 23% (31/135) compared to those receiving imipenem 16.7% (22/132) based on 28-day all-cause mortality in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Clinical response rates were also lower in the doripenem arm. Doripenem is not approved for the treatment of ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia.
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) and serious skin reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibiotics. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before therapy with DORIBAX® is instituted, careful inquiry should be made to determine whether the patient has had a previous hypersensitivity reaction to other carbapenems, cephalosporins, penicillins or other allergens. If this product is to be given to a penicillin-or other beta-lactam-allergic patient, caution should be exercised because cross-reactivity among beta-lactam antibiotics has been clearly documented.
If an allergic reaction to DORIBAX® occurs, discontinue the drug. Serious acute hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions require emergency treatment, as clinically indicated.
Seizures have been reported during treatment with doripenem (see Postmarketing Experience). In clinical trials, doripenem-treated patients with pre-existing central nervous system (CNS) disorders (e.g. stroke or history of seizures), patients with compromised renal function and patients given doses greater than 500 mg every 8 hours appear to be at greater risk for developing seizures.
Interaction With Valproic Acid
Due to a drug interaction, patients with seizure disorders controlled with valproic acid or sodium valproate will be at an increased risk for breakthrough seizures when treated with DORIBAX® concomitantly. Reduction in serum valproic acid concentrations to below the therapeutic concentration range (50 to 100 mcg/mL) was observed by 12 hours after the initiation of doripenem in healthy subjects co-administered both drugs. A similar drug interaction involving other carbapenem antibacterials and valproic acid has been described in published case reports. In some of these reports, increasing the dose of valproic acid or sodium valproate did not result in increased valproic acid serum concentrations. Alternative antibacterial therapies should be considered for patients receiving valproic acid or sodium valproate. If administration of DORIBAX® is necessary, supplemental anti-convulsant therapy should be considered. [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]
Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated. [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]
Development Of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Prescribing DORIBAX® in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Pneumonitis With Inhalational Use
When DORIBAX® has been used investigationally via inhalation, pneumonitis has occurred. DORIBAX® should not be administered by this route.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, And Impairment Of Fertility
Because of the short duration of treatment and intermittent clinical use, long-term carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with doripenem.
Doripenem did not show evidence of mutagenic activity in standard tests that included bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay with Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells, and mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Intravenous injection of doripenem had no adverse effects on general fertility of treated male and female rats or on postnatal development and reproductive performance of the offspring at doses as high as 1 g/kg/day (based on AUC, greater than 1.5 times the exposure to humans at the dose of 500 mg administered every 8 hours).
Use In Specific Populations
Category B: Doripenem was not teratogenic and did not produce effects on ossification, developmental delays or fetal weight following intravenous administration during organogenesis at doses as high as 1 g/kg/day in rats and 50 mg/kg/day in rabbits (based on AUC, at least 2.4 and 0.8 times the exposure to humans dosed at 500 mg administered every 8 hours, respectively). There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when DORIBAX® is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of DORIBAX®, 28% were 65 and over, while 12% were 75 and over. Clinical cure rates in complicated intra-abdominal and complicated urinary tract infections were slightly lower in patients ≥ 65 years of age and also in the subgroup of patients ≥ 75 years of age versus patients < 65. These results were similar between doripenem and comparator treatment groups.
This drug is known to be excreted substantially by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function or pre-renal azotemia. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function or pre-renal azotemia, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Elderly subjects had greater doripenem plasma concentrations relative to non-elderly subjects; however, this increase in exposure was mainly attributed to age-related changes in renal function. [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]
No overall differences in safety were observed between older and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Patients With Renal Impairment
Dosage adjustment is required in patients with moderately or severely impaired renal function. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] In such patients, renal function should be monitored.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/27/2015
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