Dry Eye Syndrome
(Dry Eyes, Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)
Andrew A. Dahl, MD, FACS
Andrew A. Dahl, MD, is a board-certified ophthalmologist. Dr. Dahl's educational background includes a BA with Honors and Distinction from Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, and an MD from Cornell University, where he was selected for Alpha Omega Alpha, the national medical honor society. He had an internal medical internship at the New York Hospital/Cornell Medical Center.
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
- Dry eye syndrome facts
- What is dry eye syndrome?
- What causes dry eye syndrome?
- What is the impact of dry eye syndrome?
- What are dry eye syndrome symptoms and signs?
- What are the complications of dry eye syndrome?
- What are the risk factors for dry eye syndrome?
- What is the treatment for dry eye syndrome?
- Can self-care treatments and remedies help alleviate dry eyes?
- What is the medical treatment for dry eye syndrome?
- What medications are used to treat dry eye syndrome?
- Can surgery treat dry eye syndrome?
- What other therapies are used to treat dry eye syndrome?
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- Patient Comments: Dry Eyes - Symptoms and Signs
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Dry eye syndrome facts
- Dry eye syndrome is a very common condition that is characterized by a disturbance of the tear film. This abnormality may result in disruption of the ocular surface, causing a variety of symptoms and signs and interference with quality of life.
- To help keep the eyes comfortable and vision optimal, a normal, thin film of tears coats the eyes. Three main layers make up this tear film.
- The innermost layer is the thinnest. It is a layer of mucin (or mucus). This very thin layer of mucus is produced by the cells in the conjunctiva (the clear skin that lines the eye). The mucus helps the overlying watery layer to spread evenly over the eye.
- The middle (or aqueous) layer is the largest and the thickest. This layer is essentially a very dilute saltwater solution. The lacrimal glands under the upper lids and the accessory tear glands produce this watery layer. The function of this layer is to keep the eye moist and comfortable, as well as to help flush out any dust, debris, or foreign objects that may get into the eye. Defects of the aqueous layer are the most common cause of dry eye syndrome, also referred to as dry eye or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS).
- The most superficial layer is a very thin layer of lipids (fats or oils). These lipids are produced by the meibomian glands and the glands of Zeis (oil glands in the eyelids). The main function of this lipid layer is to help decrease evaporation of the watery layer beneath.
What is dry eye syndrome?
Dry eye syndrome (DES) -- also called dry eye or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) -- is a common disorder of the tear film that affects a significant percentage of the population, especially those older than 40 years of age. The estimated number of people affected ranges from 25-30 million in the U.S. Worldwide, the incidence rate closely parallels that of the U.S. Dry eye syndrome can affect any race, and is more common in women than in men. Another term used for dry eye is ocular surface disease.
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