"Patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) may be at increased risk for experiencing significant cardiovascular (CV) events, a new study suggests.
"[T]hese findings support the notion that PsA should be considered as an independent risk "...
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDS. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as ibuprofen, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal GI events [see Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation].
Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10–14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.
Avoid the use of DUEXIS in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If DUEXIS is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDS. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occurred in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2%-4% of patients treated for one year. However, even short-term NSAID therapy is not without risk.
Risk Factors For GI Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding who used NSAIDs had a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients without these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include longer duration of NSAID therapy; concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, aspirin, anticoagulants, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); smoking; use of alcohol; older age; and poor general health status. Most postmarketing reports of fatal GI events occurred in elderly or debilitated patients. Additionally, patients with advanced liver disease and/or coagulopathy are at increased risk for GI bleeding. NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) as their condition may be exacerbated.
Strategies To Minimize The GI Risks In NSAID-treated patients:
- Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration.
- Avoid administration of more than one NSAID at a time.
- Avoid use in patients at higher risk unless benefits are expected to outweigh the increased risk of bleeding. For such patients, as well as those with active GI bleeding, consider alternate therapies other than NSAIDs.
- Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy.
- If a serious GI adverse event is suspected, promptly initiate evaluation and treatment, and discontinue DUEXIS until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out.
- In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, monitor patients more closely for evidence of GI bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
When active and clinically significant bleeding from any credit occurs in patients receiving DUEXIS, the treatment should be withdrawn. Patients with initial hemoglobin values of 10 g or less who are to receive long-term therapy should have hemoglobin values determined periodically.
Elevations of ALT or AST (three or more times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have been reported in approximately 1% of NSAID-treated patients in clinical trials. In addition, rare, sometimes fatal, cases of severe hepatic injury, including fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported.
Elevations of ALT or AST (less than three times ULN) may occur in up to 15% of patients treated with NSAIDs including ibuprofen.
Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue DUEXIS immediately, and perform a clinical evaluation of the patient.
NSAIDs, including DUEXIS, can lead to new onset of hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Monitor blood pressure (BP) during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Heart Failure And Edema
The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.
Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of ibuprofen may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions (e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Avoid the use of DUEXIS in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If DUEXIS is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs and symptoms of worsening heart failure.
Renal Toxicity And Hyperkalemia
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE-inhibitors or ARBs, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy was usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of DUEXIS in patients with advanced renal disease. The renal effects of DUEXIS may hasten the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with pre-existing renal disease.
Correct volume status in dehydrated or hypovolemic patients prior to initiating DUEXIS. Monitor renal function in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, heart failure, dehydration, or hypovolemia during use of DUEXIS [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Avoid the use of DUEXIS in patients with advanced renal disease unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening renal failure. If DUEXIS is used in patients with advanced renal disease, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.
Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of NSAIDs, even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemic-hypoaldosteronism state.
Seek emergency help if an anaphylactic reaction occurs.
Central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects including seizures, delirium, and coma have been reported with famotidine in patients with moderate (creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min) and severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance < 10 mL/min), and the dosage of the famotidine component in DUEXIS is fixed. Therefore, DUEXIS is not recommended in patients with creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min.
Exacerbation Of Asthma Related To Aspirin Sensitivity
A subpopulation of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma which may include chronic rhinosinusitis complicated by nasal polyps; severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm; and/or intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs. Because cross-reactivity between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, DUEXIS is contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. When DUEXIS is used in patients with preexisting asthma (without known aspirin sensitivity), monitor patients for changes in the signs and symptoms of asthma.
Serious Skin Reactions
NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, which is a component of DUEXIS tablets, can cause serious skin adverse reactions such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions and to discontinue the use of DUEXIS at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. DUEXIS is contraindicated in patients with previous serious skin reactions to NSAIDs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Premature Closure Of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus
Ibuprofen may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including DUEXIS, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester) [see Use in Specific Population].
Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with DUEXIS has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.
NSAIDs, including DUEXIS, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders or concomitant concomitant use of warfarin, and other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase the risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Masking Of Inflammation And Fever
The pharmacological activity of DUEXIS in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.
Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a CBC and chemistry profile periodically.
Concomitant NSAID Use
DUEXIS contains ibuprofen as one of its active ingredients. It should not be used with other ibuprofen-containing products.
Aseptic meningitis with fever and coma has been observed on rare occasions in patients on ibuprofen, which is a component of DUEXIS. Although it is probably more likely to occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and related connective tissue diseases, it has been reported in patients who do not have an underlying chronic disease. If signs or symptoms of meningitis develop in a patient on DUEXIS, the possibility of its being related to ibuprofen should be considered.
Blurred and/or diminished vision, scotomata, and/or changes in color vision have been reported. If a patient develops such complaints while receiving DUEXIS, the drug should be discontinued, and the patient should have an ophthalmologic examination which includes central visual fields and color vision testing.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Inform patients, families, or caregivers of the following before initiating therapy with DUEXIS and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy.
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
Advise patients to report symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis to their health care provider. In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, inform patients of the increased risk for and the signs and symptoms of GI bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop DUEXIS and seek immediate medical therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Heart Failure And Edema
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their health care provider if such symptoms occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). Instruct patients to seek immediate emergency help if these occur [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Serious Skin Reactions
Advise patients to stop DUEXIS immediately if they develop any type of rash and to contact their health care provider as soon as possible [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise females of reproductive potential who desire pregnancy that NSAIDs, including DUEXIS, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform pregnant women to avoid use of DUEXIS and other NSAIDs starting at 30 weeks gestation because of the risk of the premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
Avoid Concomitant Use Of NSAIDs
Inform patients that the concomitant use of DUEXIS with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in the “over the counter” medications for treatment of colds, fever or insomnia.
Use Of NSAIDs And Low-Dose Aspirin
Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with DUEXIS until they talk to their health care provider [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Patients should be monitored for development of nephrotoxicity (e.g., azotemia, hypertension, and /or proteinuria). If these patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy.
DUEXIS is not recommended in patients with creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min because of seizures, delirium, coma and other CNS effect.
Inform patients that DUEXIS tablets should be swallowed whole, and should not be cut to supply a lower dose. Advise patient not to chew, divide, or crush tablets [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Patients should be instructed that if a dose is missed, it should be taken as soon as possible. However, if the next scheduled dose is due, the patient should not take the missed dose, and should be instructed to take the next dose on time. Patients should be instructed not to take 2 doses at one time to make up for a missed dose.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, And Impairment Of Fertility
Studies to evaluate the potential effects of DUEXIS on carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility have not been conducted.
In a 106-week study in rats and a 92-week study in mice, famotidine was given at oral doses of up to 2000 mg/kg/day (approximately 122 and 243 times the recommended human dose, respectively, based on body surface area). There was no evidence of carcinogenic potential for famotidine.
Famotidine was negative in the microbial mutagen test (Ames test) using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli with or without rat liver enzyme activation at concentrations up to 10,000 μg/plate. In in vivo mouse micronucleus test and a chromosomal aberration test with famotidine, no evidence of a mutagenic effect was observed.
In published studies, ibuprofen was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames assay).
Impairment Of Fertility
In studies of famotidine in rats at oral doses of up to 2000 mg/kg/day (approximately 243 times the recommended human dose, based on body surface area), fertility and reproductive performance were not affected.
In a published study, dietary administration of ibuprofen to male and female rats 8-weeks prior to and during mating at dose levels of 20 mg/kg (0.06-times the MRHD based on body surface area comparison) did not impact male or female fertility or litter size.
In other studies, adult mice were administered ibuprofen intraperitoneally at a dose of 5.6 mg/kg/day (0.0085-times the MRHD based on body surface area comparison) for 35 or 60 days in males and 35 days in females. There was no effect on sperm motility or viability in males but decreased ovulation was reported in females.
Use In Specific Populations
Use of NSAIDs, including DUEXIS, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including DUEXIS, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester). There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of DUEXIS in pregnant women.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ibuprofen in pregnant women. Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In published animal reproduction studies, there were no clear developmental effects at doses up to 0.4times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) in the rabbit and 0.5-times in the MRHD rat when dosed throughout gestation. In contrast, an increase in membranous ventricular septal defects was reported in rats treated on Gestation Days 9 & 10 with 0.8-times the MRHD. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as ibuprofen, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss. Advise a pregnant woman of the potential risk to a fetus.
Limited published data do not report an increased risk of congenital malformations or other adverse pregnancy effects with use of H2- receptor antagonists, including DUEXIS, during pregnancy; however, these data are insufficient to adequately determine a drug-associated risk. Reproductive studies with famotidine have been performed in rats and rabbits at oral doses of up to 2000 and 500 mg/kg/day (approximately 243 and 122 times the recommended human dose, respectively, based on body surface area) and in both species at intravenous (I.V.) doses of up to 200 mg/kg/day, and have revealed no significant evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to famotidine
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the general U.S. population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Labor or Delivery
There are no studies on the effects of DUEXIS during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.
When used to delay preterm labor, inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, including NSAIDs such ibuprofen, may increase the risk of neonatal complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus and intracranial hemorrhage. Ibuprofen treatment given in late pregnancy to delay parturition has been associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension, renal dysfunction and abnormal prostaglandin E levels in preterm infants.
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with DUEXIS.
In a published study, female rabbits given 7.5, 20, or 60 mg/kg ibuprofen (0.04, 0.12, or 0.36-times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 3200 mg of ibuprofen based on body surface area) from Gestation Days 1 to 29, no clear treatment-related adverse developmental effects were noted. Doses of 20 and 60 mg/kg were associated with significant maternal toxicity (stomach ulcers, gastric lesions). In the same publication, female rats were administered 7.5, 20, 60, 180 mg/kg ibuprofen (0.02, 0.06, 0.18, 0.54-times the maximum daily dose) did not result in clear adverse developmental effects. Maternal toxicity (gastrointestinal lesions) was noted at 20 mg/kg and above.
In a published study, rats were orally dosed with 300 mg/kg ibuprofen (0.912-times the maximum human daily dose of 3200 mg based on body surface area) during Gestation Days 9 and 10 (critical time points for heart development in rats). Ibuprofen treatment resulted in an increase in the incidence of membranous ventricular septal defects. This dose was associated with significant maternal toxicity including gastrointestinal toxicity. One incidence each of a membranous ventricular septal defect and gastroschisis was noted in fetuses from rabbits treated with 500 mg/kg (3-times the maximum human daily dose) from Gestation Day 9-11.
Reproductive studies with famotidine have been performed in rats and rabbits at oral doses of up to 2000 and 500 mg/kg/day (approximately 243 and 122 times the recommended human dose of 80 mg per day, respectively, based on body surface area) and in both species at intravenous doses of up to 200 mg/kg/day (about 24 and 49 times the recommended human dose of 80 mg per day, respectively, based on body surface area), and have revealed no significant evidence of harm to the fetus due to famotidine. While no direct fetotoxic effects have been observed, sporadic abortions occurring only in mothers displaying marked decreased food intake were seen in some rabbits at oral doses of 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 49 times the recommended human dose of 80 mg per day, respectively, based on body surface area) or higher. Animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response.
No studies have been conducted with the use of DUEXIS in lactating women. Limited data from published literature report famotidine is present in human milk in low amounts. Published literature also reports the presence of ibuprofen in human milk in low amounts. No information is available on the effects of famotidine or ibuprofen on milk production or on a breastfed infant. Famotidine is present in the milk of lactating rats [see Data]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for DUEXIS and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from DUEXIS or from the underlying maternal condition.
Transient growth depression was observed in young rats suckling from mothers treated with maternotoxic doses of at least 300 times the usual human dose of famotidine.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including DUEXIS, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin-mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including DUEXIS, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.
Safety and effectiveness of DUEXIS in pediatric patients have not been established.
Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
The clinical trials primarily enrolled patients less than 65 years of age. Of the 1022 patients in clinical studies of DUEXIS, 18% (249 patients) were 65 years of age or older. Efficacy results in patients who are greater than or equal to 65 years of age are summarized in the CLINICAL STUDIES section [see Clinical Studies].
Famotidine is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection and adjusting dose interval, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
In adult patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min), the elimination half-life of famotidine is increased. Since CNS adverse effects have been reported in patients with creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min and the dosage of the famotidine component in DUEXIS is fixed, DUEXIS is not recommended in these patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/23/2016
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