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Adverse effects are listed in decreasing order of severity.
Renal: Acute renal failure (one case of irreversible renal failure has been reported), interstitial nephritis, renal stones composed primarily of triamterene, elevated BUN, and serum creatinine, abnormal urinary sediment.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle cramps.
Central Nervous System: Weakness, fatigue, dizziness, headache, dry mouth.
Miscellaneous: Impotence, sialadenitis.
Thiazides alone have been shown to cause the following additional adverse reactions:
Central Nervous System: Paresthesias, vertigo.
Ophthalmic: Xanthopsia, transient blurred vision.
Respiratory: Allergic pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, respiratory distress.
Other: Necrotizing vasculitis, exacerbation of lupus.
Neonate and infancy: Thrombocytopenia and pancreatitis-rarely, in newborns whose mothers have received thiazides during pregnancy.
Read the Dyazide (hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Potassium-sparing agents should be used with caution in conjunction with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors due to an increased risk of hyperkalemia.
Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs: Concurrent use with chlorpropamide may increase the risk of severe hyponatremia.
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: A possible interaction resulting in acute renal failure has been reported in a few patients on DYAZIDE (hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene) when treated with indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Caution is advised in administering nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents with DYAZIDE (hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene) .
Lithium: Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics because they reduce its renal clearance and increase the risk of lithium toxicity. Read circulars for lithium preparations before use of such concomitant therapy with DYAZIDE (hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene) .
Surgical Considerations: Thiazides have been shown to decrease arterial responsiveness to norepinephrine (an effect attributed to loss of sodium). This diminution is not sufficient to preclude effectiveness of the pressor agent for therapeutic use. Thiazides have also been shown to increase the paralyzing effect of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants such as tubocurarine (an effect attributed to potassium loss); consequently caution should be observed in patients undergoing surgery.
Other Considerations: Concurrent use of hydrochlorothiazide with amphotericin B or corticosteroids or corticotropin (ACTH) may intensify electrolyte imbalance, particularly hypokalemia, although the presence of triamterene minimizes the hypokalemic effect.
The effect of oral anticoagulants may be decreased when used concurrently with hydrochlorothiazide; dosage adjustments may be necessary.
The following agents given together with triamterene may promote serum potassium accumulation and possibly result in hyperkalemia because of the potassium-sparing nature of triamterene, especially in patients with renal insufficiency: blood from blood bank (may contain up to 30 mEq of potassium per liter of plasma or up to 65 mEq per liter of whole blood when stored for more than 10 days); low-salt milk (may contain up to 60 mEq of potassium per liter); potassium-containing medications (such as parenteral penicillin G potassium); salt substitutes (most contain substantial amounts of potassium).
Exchange resins, such as sodium polystyrene sulfonate, whether administered orally or rectally, reduce serum potassium levels by sodium replacement of the potassium; fluid retention may occur in some patients because of the increased sodium intake.
Chronic or overuse of laxatives may reduce serum potassium levels by promoting excessive potassium loss from the intestinal tract; laxatives may interfere with the potassium-retaining effects of triamterene.
The effectiveness of methenamine may be decreased when used concurrently with hydrochlorothiazide because of alkalinization of the urine.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
Triamterene and quinidine have similar fluorescence spectra; thus, DYAZIDE (hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene) will interfere with the fluorescent measurement of quinidine.
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/5/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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