"In the largest, most comprehensive, nationwide study to examine the prevalence of allergies from early childhood to old age, scientists from the National Institutes of Health report that allergy prevalence is the same across different regions "...
Systemic and local corticosteroid use may result in the following:
- Somnolence [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Local nasal effects, including epistaxis, nasal ulceration, nasal septal perforation, impaired wound healing, and Candida albicans infection [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Cataracts and glaucoma [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Immunosuppression [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis effects, including growth reduction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use in Specific Populations]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in practice.
The safety data described below reflect exposure to Dymista Nasal Spray in 853 patients (12 years of age and older; 36% male and 64% female) with seasonal allergic rhinitis in 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of 2-week duration. The racial distribution for the 3 clinical trials was 80% white, 16% black, 2% Asian, and 1% other. In the 12-month open-label, active-controlled clinical trial, 404 Asian patients (240 males and 164 females) with perennial allergic rhinitis or vasomotor rhinitis were treated with Dymista Nasal Spray, 1 spray per nostril twice daily.
Adults and Adolescents 12 Years of Age and Older
In the 3 placebo controlled clinical trials of 2-week duration, 3411 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis were treated with 1 spray per nostril of Dymista Nasal Spray, azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray, fluticasone propionate nasal spray, or placebo, twice daily. The azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate comparators use the same vehicle and device as Dymista Nasal Spray and are not commercially marketed. Overall, adverse reactions were 16% in the Dymista Nasal Spray treatment groups, 15% in the azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray groups, 13% in the fluticasone propionate nasal spray groups, and 12% in the placebo groups. Overall, 1% of patients in both the Dymista Nasal Spray and placebo groups discontinued due to adverse reactions.
Table 1 contains adverse reactions reported with frequencies greater than or equal to 2% and more frequently than placebo in patients treated with Dymista Nasal Spray in the seasonal allergic rhinitis controlled clinical trials.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions with ≥ 2% Incidence and
More Frequently than Placebo in Placebo-Controlled Trials of 2 Weeks Duration
with Dymista Nasal Spray in Adult and Adolescent Patients With Seasonal
|1 spray per nostril twice daily|
|Dymista Nasal Spray
|Azelastine Hydrochloride Nasal Spray†
|Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray†
|Dysgeusia||30 (4%)||44 (5%)||4 (1%)||2 ( < 1%)|
|Headache||18 (2%)||20 (2%)||20 (2%)||10 (1%)|
|Epistaxis||16 (2%)||14 (2%)||14 (2%)||15 (2%)|
|*Safety population N=853, intent-to-treat population N=848
† Not commercially marketed
In the above trials, somnolence was reported in < 1% of patients treated with Dymista Nasal Spray (6 of 853) or vehicle placebo (1 of 861) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Long-Term (12-Month) Safety Trial:
In the 12-month, open-label, active-controlled, long-term safety trial, 404 patients (12 years of age and older) with perennial allergic rhinitis or vasomotor rhinitis were treated with Dymista Nasal Spray 1 spray per nostril twice daily and 207 patients were treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, 2 sprays per nostril once daily. Overall, adverse reactions were 47% in the Dymista Nasal Spray treatment group and 44% in the fluticasone propionate nasal spray group. The most frequently reported adverse reactions ( ≥ 2%) with Dymista Nasal Spray were headache, pyrexia, cough, nasal congestion, rhinitis, dysgeusia, viral infection, upper respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis, pain, diarrhea, and epistaxis. In the Dymista Nasal Spray treatment group, 7 patients (2%) had mild epistaxis and 1 patient ( < 1%) had moderate epistaxis. In the fluticasone propionate nasal spray treatment group 1 patient ( < 1%) had mild epistaxis. No patients had reports of severe epistaxis. Focused nasal examinations were performed and no nasal ulcerations or septal perforations were observed. Eleven of 404 patients (3%) treated with Dymista Nasal Spray and 6 of 207 patients (3%) treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray discontinued from the trial due to adverse events.
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The following spontaneous adverse events have been reported during the marketing of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray and causal relationship with the drug is unknown: anaphylactoid reaction, application site irritation, atrial fibrillation, chest pain, confusion, dyspnea, facial edema, involuntary muscle contractions, nasal sores, palpitations, paresthesia, parosmia, pruritus, rash, disturbance or loss of sense of smell and/or taste, tolerance, urinary retention, vision abnormal and xerophthalmia.
In addition, the following events have been identified during post-approval use of fluticasone propionate nasal spray. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or causal connection to fluticasone propionate or a combination of these factors.
General: Hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema, skin rash, edema of the face and tongue, pruritus, urticaria, bronchospasm, wheezing, dyspnea, and anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions, which in rare instances were severe.
Ear, Nose, and Throat: Alteration or loss of sense of taste and/or smell and, rarely, nasal septal perforation, nasal ulcer, sore throat, throat irritation and dryness, cough, hoarseness, and voice changes.
Eye: Dryness and irritation, conjunctivitis, blurred vision, glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, and cataracts.
Cases of growth suppression have been reported for intranasal corticosteroids, including fluticasone propionate [see Use in Specific Populations].
Read the Dymista (azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
No formal drug interaction studies have been performed with Dymista Nasal Spray. The drug interactions of the combination are expected to reflect those of the individual components.
Central Nervous System Depressants
Concurrent use of Dymista Nasal Spray with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because somnolence and impairment of central nervous system performance may occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Ritonavir (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) significantly increased plasma fluticasone propionate exposure following administration of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray, resulting in significantly reduced serum cortisol concentrations [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. During postmarketing use, there have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving fluticasone propionate and ritonavir, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Therefore, coadministration of fluticasone propionate and ritonavir is not recommended unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side effects.
Ketoconazole (also a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor), administered in multiple 200 mg doses to steady-state, increased plasma exposure of fluticasone propionate, reduced plasma cortisol AUC, but had no effect on urinary excretion of cortisol, following administration of a single 1000 mcg dose of fluticasone propionate by oral inhalation route.
Caution should be exercised when Dymista Nasal Spray is coadministered with ketoconazole and other known strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.
Read the Dymista Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/13/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Dymista Information
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