"In the largest, most comprehensive, nationwide study to examine the prevalence of allergies from early childhood to old age, scientists from the National Institutes of Health report that allergy prevalence is the same across different regions "...
In clinical trials, the occurrence of somnolence has been reported in some patients (6 of 853 patients) taking Dymista Nasal Spray [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Patients should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness and motor coordination such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle after administration of Dymista Nasal Spray. Concurrent use of Dymista Nasal Spray with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because additional reductions in alertness and additional impairment of central nervous system performance may occur [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Local Nasal Effects
Instances of nasal ulceration and nasal septal perforation have been reported in patients following the intranasal application of corticosteroids. There were no instances of nasal ulceration or nasal septal perforation observed in clinical trials with Dymista Nasal Spray.
Because of the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on wound healing, patients who have experienced recent nasal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use Dymista Nasal Spray until healing has occurred.
In clinical trials with fluticasone propionate administered intranasally, the development of localized infections of the nose and pharynx with Candida albicans has occurred. When such an infection develops, it may require treatment with appropriate local therapy and discontinuation of treatment with Dymista Nasal Spray. Patients using Dymista Nasal Spray over several months or longer should be examined periodically for evidence of Candida infection or other signs of adverse effects on the nasal mucosa.
Glaucoma and Cataracts
Nasal and inhaled corticosteroids may result in the development of glaucoma and/or cataracts. Therefore, close monitoring is warranted in patients with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and/or cataracts.
Glaucoma and cataract formation were evaluated with intraocular pressure measurements and slit lamp examinations in a controlled 12-month study in 612 adolescent and adult patients aged 12 years and older with perennial allergic or vasomotor rhinitis (VMR). Of the 612 patients enrolled in the study, 405 were randomized to receive Dymista Nasal Spray (1 spray per nostril twice daily) and 207 were randomized to receive fluticasone propionate nasal spray (2 sprays per nostril once daily). In the Dymista Nasal Spray group, one patient had increased intraocular pressure at month 6. In addition, three patients had evidence of posterior subcapsular cataract at month 6 and one at month 12 (end of treatment). In the fluticasone propionate group, three patients had evidence of posterior subcapsular cataract at month 12 (end of treatment).
Persons who are using drugs, such as corticosteroids, that suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In children or adults who have not had these diseases or been properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affect the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
Corticosteroids should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculous infections of the respiratory tract; untreated local or systemic fungal or bacterial infections; systemic viral or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex because of the potential for worsening of these infections.
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Effects
When intranasal steroids are used at higher than recommended dosages or in susceptible individuals at recommended dosages, systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression may appear. If such changes occur, the dosage of Dymista Nasal Spray should be discontinued slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for discontinuing oral corticosteroid therapy. The concomitant use of intranasal corticosteroids with other inhaled corticosteroids could increase the risk of signs or symptoms of hypercorticism and/or suppression of the HPA axis.
The replacement of a systemic corticosteroid with a topical corticosteroid can be accompanied by signs of adrenal insufficiency, and in addition some patients may experience symptoms of withdrawal, e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression. Patients previously treated for prolonged periods with systemic corticosteroids and transferred to topical corticosteroids should be carefully monitored for acute adrenal insufficiency in response to stress. In those patients who have asthma or other clinical conditions requiring long-term systemic corticosteroid treatment, too rapid a decrease in systemic corticosteroids may cause a severe exacerbation of their symptoms.
Use of Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors
Ritonavir and other strong cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors can significantly increase plasma fluticasone propionate exposure, resulting in significantly reduced serum cortisol concentrations [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. During postmarketing use, there have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving fluticasone propionate and ritonavir, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Therefore, coadministration of Dymista Nasal Spray and ritonavir is not recommended unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side effects.
Effect on Growth
Corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Monitor the growth routinely of pediatric patients receiving Dymista Nasal Spray [see Use in Specific Populations].
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information and Instructions for Use)
Patients should be instructed to use Dymista Nasal Spray only as prescribed. For the proper use of the nasal spray and to attain maximum improvement, the patient should read and follow carefully the accompanying FDA-Approved Patient Labeling.
Somnolence has been reported in some patients (6 of 853 patients) taking Dymista Nasal Spray. Patients should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness and motor coordination such as driving or operating machinery after administration of Dymista Nasal Spray [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Concurrent Use of Alcohol and other Central Nervous System Depressants
Concurrent use of Dymista Nasal Spray with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because additional reductions in alertness and additional impairment of central nervous system performance may occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Local Nasal Effects
Nasal corticosteroids are associated with nasal septal perforation and impaired wound healing. Patients who have experienced recent nasal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use Dymista Nasal Spray until healing has occurred [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Patients should be informed that glaucoma and cataracts are associated with nasal and inhaled corticosteroid use. Patients should inform his/her health care provider if a change in vision is noted while using Dymista Nasal Spray [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to consult their physician without delay. Patients should be informed of potential worsening of existing tuberculosis, fungal, bacterial, viral or parasitic infections, or ocular herpes simplex [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients should be instructed to shake the bottle gently before each use and prime the pump before initial use and when Dymista Nasal Spray has not been used for 14 or more days [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Keep Spray Out of Eyes
Patients should be instructed to avoid spraying Dymista Nasal Spray into their eyes.
Keep Out of Children's Reach
Patients should be instructed to keep Dymista Nasal Spray out of the reach of children. If a child accidentally ingests Dymista Nasal Spray, seek medical help or call a poison control center immediately.
Potential Drug Interactions
Patients should be advised that coadministration of Dymista Nasal Spray and ritonavir is not recommended and to be cautious if Dymista Nasal Spray is coadministered with ketoconazole [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Dymista Nasal Spray
No studies of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility were conducted with Dymista Nasal Spray; however, studies are available for the individual active components, azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate, as described below.
In 2-year carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice, azelastine hydrochloride did not show evidence of carcinogenicity at oral doses up to 30 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg, respectively. These doses were approximately 530 and 220 times the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose [MRHDID] on a mg/m² basis.
Azelastine hydrochloride showed no genotoxic effects in the Ames test, DNA repair test, mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, mouse micronucleus test, or chromosomal aberration test in rat bone marrow.
Reproduction and fertility studies in rats showed no effects on male or female fertility at oral doses up to 30 mg/kg (approximately 530 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m² basis). At
68.6 mg/kg (approximately 1200 times the MRHDID on a mg/m2 basis), the duration of estrous cycles was prolonged and copulatory activity and the number of pregnancies were decreased. The numbers of corpora lutea and implantations were decreased; however, pre-implantation loss was not increased.
Fluticasone propionate demonstrated no tumorigenic potential in mice at oral doses up to 1,000 mcg/kg (approximately 20 times the maximum recommended daily intranasal dose in adults and approximately 10 times the maximum recommended daily intranasal dose in children on a mcg/m² basis) for 78 weeks or in rats at inhalation doses up to 57 mcg/kg (approximately 2 times the MRHDID in adults on a mcg/m² basis) for 104 weeks.
Fluticasone propionate did not induce gene mutation in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells in vitro. No significant clastogenic effect was seen in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro or in the mouse micronucleus test.
No evidence of impairment of fertility was observed in reproductive studies conducted in male and female rats at subcutaneous doses up to 50 mcg/kg (approximately 2 times the MRHDID in adults on a mcg/m² basis). Prostate weight was significantly reduced at a subcutaneous dose of 50 mcg/kg.
Use In Specific Populations
Dymista Nasal Spray
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C: There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical trials of Dymista Nasal Spray, azelastine hydrochloride only, or fluticasone propionate only in pregnant women. Animal reproductive studies of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate in mice, rats, and/or rabbits revealed evidence of teratogenicity as well as other developmental toxic effects. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, Dymista Nasal Spray should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Teratogenic Effects: In mice, azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death, malformations (cleft palate; short or absent tail; fused, absent or branched ribs), delayed ossification, and decreased fetal weight at an oral dose approximately 610 times the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 68.6 mg/kg). This dose also caused maternal toxicity as evidenced by decreased body weight. Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at a dose that was approximately 26 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 3 mg/kg).
In rats, azelastine hydrochloride caused malformations (oligo- and brachydactylia), delayed ossification and skeletal variations, in the absence of maternal toxicity, at an oral dose approximately 530 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 30 mg/kg). At a dose approximately 1200 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 68.6 mg/kg), azelastine hydrochloride also caused embryo-fetal death and decreased fetal weight; however, this dose caused severe maternal toxicity. Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at a dose approximately 53 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 3 mg/kg).
In rabbits, azelastine hydrochloride caused abortion, delayed ossification, and decreased fetal weight at oral doses approximately 1100 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 30 mg/kg); however, these doses also resulted in severe maternal toxicity. Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at a dose approximately 11 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 0.3 mg/kg).
Teratogenic Effects: Corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic in laboratory animals when administered systemically at relatively low dosage levels. Subcutaneous studies in the mouse and rat at doses approximately equivalent to and 4 times, respectively, the MRHDID in adults (on a mcg/m² basis at maternal doses of 45 and 100 mcg/kg, respectively), revealed fetal toxicity characteristic of potent corticosteroid compounds, including embryonic growth retardation, omphalocele, cleft palate, and retarded cranial ossification.
In the rabbit, fetal weight reduction and cleft palate were observed at a subcutaneous dose less than the MRHDID in adults (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 4 mcg/kg). However, no teratogenic effects were reported at oral doses up to approximately 25 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mcg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 300 mcg/kg) of fluticasone propionate to the rabbit. No fluticasone propionate was detected in the plasma in this study, consistent with the established low bioavailability following oral administration [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Experience with oral corticosteroids since their introduction in pharmacologic, as opposed to physiologic, doses suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans. In addition, because there is a natural increase in corticosteroid production during pregnancy, most women will require a lower exogenous corticosteroid dose and many will not need corticosteroid treatment during pregnancy.
Fluticasone propionate crossed the placenta following oral administration of approximately 4 and 25 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mcg/m2 basis at maternal doses of 100 mcg/kg and 300 mcg/kg to rats and rabbits, respectively).
Dymista Nasal Spray
It is not known whether Dymista Nasal Spray is excreted in human breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Dymista Nasal Spray is administered to a nursing woman. Since there are no data from well-controlled human studies on the use of Dymista Nasal Spray by nursing mothers, based on data from the individual components, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue Dymista Nasal Spray, taking into account the importance of Dymista Nasal Spray to the mother.
It is not known if azelastine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk.
It is not known if fluticasone propionate is excreted in human milk. However, other corticosteroids are excreted in human milk. Subcutaneous administration to lactating rats of 10 mcg/kg of tritiated fluticasone propionate (less than the maximum recommended daily intranasal dose in adults on a mcg/m² basis) resulted in measurable radioactivity in the milk.
Safety and effectiveness of Dymista Nasal Spray in pediatric patients below the age of 12 years have not been established.
Controlled clinical studies have shown that intranasal corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. This effect has been observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of HPA axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with intranasal corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for “catch-up” growth following discontinuation of treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of pediatric patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids, including Dymista Nasal Spray, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against the clinical benefits obtained and the risks/benefits of treatment alternatives.
Clinical trials of Dymista Nasal Spray did not include sufficient numbers of patients 65 years of age and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/13/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Dymista Information
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