David Perlstein, MD, MBA, FAAP
Dr. Perlstein received his Medical Degree from the University of Cincinnati and then completed his internship and residency in pediatrics at The New York Hospital, Cornell medical Center in New York City. After serving an additional year as Chief Pediatric Resident, he worked as a private practitioner and then was appointed Director of Ambulatory Pediatrics at St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
- Dyslexia facts
- What is dyslexia?
- What causes dyslexia?
- What are the different types of dyslexia?
- What are the signs and symptoms of dyslexia?
- What should parents or caregivers do if they suspect a child has the signs and symptoms of dyslexia?
- What tests diagnose dyslexia?
- What type of treatment is available for dyslexia?
- What is the prognosis for a person with dyslexia?
- More information about dyslexia
- Dyslexia is difficulty in learning to read.
- Dyslexia can be related to hereditary factors or other factors that affect brain development.
- The precise cause of dyslexia is not fully understood.
- Diagnosis of dyslexia involves reviewing the child's processing of information from seeing, hearing, and participating in activities.
- Treatment of dyslexia ideally involves planning between the parent(s) and the teachers.
What is dyslexia?
Dyslexia has been around for a long time and has been defined in different ways. For example, in 1968, the World Federation of Neurologists defined dyslexia as "a disorder in children who, despite conventional classroom experience, fail to attain the language skills of reading, writing, and spelling commensurate with their intellectual abilities." The International Dyslexia Association offers the following definition of dyslexia:
"Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge."
Dyslexia is the most common learning disability in children and persists throughout life. The severity of dyslexia can vary from mild to severe. The sooner dyslexia is treated, the more favorable the outcome. However, it is never too late for people with dyslexia to learn to improve their language skills.
Dyslexia can go undetected in the early grades of schooling. Children can become frustrated by the difficulty in learning to read. It is important to note that other problems can disguise dyslexia such as a child may:
- Show signs of depression and low self-esteem
- Have behavior problems at home, as well as at school that often manifest
- Become unmotivated and develop a dislike for school, and their success may be jeopardized if the problem remains untreated
Next: What causes dyslexia?
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