David Perlstein, MD, MBA, FAAP
Dr. Perlstein received his Medical Degree from the University of Cincinnati and then completed his internship and residency in pediatrics at The New York Hospital, Cornell medical Center in New York City. After serving an additional year as Chief Pediatric Resident, he worked as a private practitioner and then was appointed Director of Ambulatory Pediatrics at St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
- Dyslexia facts
- What is dyslexia?
- What causes dyslexia? What are the different types of dyslexia?
- What are the signs and symptoms of dyslexia?
- What do parents do if they see these signs and symptoms?
- How is dyslexia diagnosed?
- What type of treatment is available for dyslexia?
- Patient Comments: Dyslexia - Describe Your Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Dyslexia - Diagnosis
- Patient Comments: Dyslexia - Causes
- Patient Comments: Dyslexia - Personal Experience
- Patient Comments: Dyslexia - Treatment
- Dyslexia is difficulty in learning to read.
- Dyslexia can be related to brain injury, heredity, or hormonal influences.
- Letter and number reversals are a common warning sign of dyslexia.
- Diagnosis of dyslexia involves reviewing the child's processing of information from seeing, hearing, and participating in activities.
- Treatment of dyslexia ideally involves planning between the parent(s) and the teachers.
What is dyslexia?
Dyslexia has been around for a long time and has been defined in different ways. For example, in 1968, the World Federation of Neurologists defined dyslexia as "a disorder in children who, despite conventional classroom experience, fail to attain the language skills of reading, writing, and spelling commensurate with their intellectual abilities." According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, dyslexia is a learning disability that can hinder a person's ability to read, write, spell, and sometimes speak. Dyslexia is the most common learning disability in children and persists throughout life. The severity of dyslexia can vary from mild to severe. The sooner dyslexia is treated, the more favorable the outcome; however, it is never too late for people with dyslexia to learn to improve their language skills.
Children with dyslexia have difficulty in learning to read despite traditional instruction, at least average intelligence, and an adequate opportunity to learn. It is caused by an impairment in the brain's ability to translate images received from the eyes or ears into understandable language. It does not result from vision or hearing problems. It is not due to mental retardation, brain damage, or a lack of intelligence.
Dyslexia can go undetected in the early grades of schooling. Children can become frustrated by the difficulty in learning to read, and other problems can arise that disguise dyslexia. They may show signs of depression and low self-esteem. Behavior problems at home, as well as at school, often manifest. Children may become unmotivated and develop a dislike for school, and their success there may be jeopardized if the problem remains untreated.
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