David Perlstein, MD, MBA, FAAP
Dr. Perlstein received his Medical Degree from the University of Cincinnati and then completed his internship and residency in pediatrics at The New York Hospital, Cornell medical Center in New York City. After serving an additional year as Chief Pediatric Resident, he worked as a private practitioner and then was appointed Director of Ambulatory Pediatrics at St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Dyslexia facts
- What is dyslexia?
- What causes dyslexia?
- What are the different types of dyslexia?
- What are the signs and symptoms of dyslexia?
- What should parents or caregivers do if they suspect a child has the signs and symptoms of dyslexia?
- What tests diagnose dyslexia?
- What type of treatment is available for dyslexia?
- What is the prognosis for a person with dyslexia?
- More information about dyslexia
What are the signs and symptoms of dyslexia?
Classroom teachers may not be able to determine if a child has dyslexia. They may detect early signs that suggest further assessment by a psychologist or other healthcare professional in order to actually diagnose the disorder.
Signs and symptoms of dyslexia
- Delayed early language development
- Problems recognizing the differences between similar sounds or segmenting words.
- Slow learning of new vocabulary words
- Difficulty copying from the board or a book.
- Difficulty with learning reading, writing, and spelling skills
- A child may not be able to remember content, even if it involves a favorite video or storybook.
- Problems with spatial relationships can extend beyond the classroom and be observed on the playground. The child may appear to be uncoordinated and have difficulty with organized sports or games.
- Difficulty with left and right is common, and often dominance for either hand has not been established.
Auditory problems in dyslexia encompass a variety of functions.
- Commonly, a child may have difficulty remembering or understanding what he hears.
- Recalling sequences of things or more than one command at a time can be difficult.
- Parts of words or parts of whole sentences may be missed, and words can come out sounding funny.
- The wrong word or a similar word may be used instead.
- Children struggling with this problem may know what they want to say but have trouble finding the actual words to express their thoughts.
Many subtle signs can be observed in children with dyslexia.
- Children may become withdrawn and appear to be depressed.
- They may begin to act out, drawing attention away from their learning difficulty.
- Problems with self-esteem can arise, and peer and sibling interactions can become strained.
- These children may lose their interest in school-related activities and appear to be unmotivated or lazy.
- The emotional symptoms and signs are just as important as the academic and require equal attention.
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