"Nov. 1, 2012 -- Having even mildly elevated blood pressure at midlife prematurely ages the brain, a new study shows.
Researchers say the early changes seen with higher blood pressure may set the stage for problems with thinking, memor"...
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Edarbyclor as soon as possible [see Use in Specific Populations].
Hypotension In Volume- Or Salt-Depleted Patients
In patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system, such as volume- or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those being treated with high doses of diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiation of treatment with Edarbyclor. Such patients are probably not good candidates to start therapy with more than one drug; therefore, correct volume prior to administration of Edarbyclor. If hypotension does occur, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, given an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized.
Impaired Renal Function
Monitor for worsening renal function in patients with renal impairment. Consider withholding or discontinuing Edarbyclor if progressive renal impairment becomes evident.
As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals treated with Edarbyclor. In patients whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., patients with severe congestive heart failure, renal artery stenosis, or volume depletion), treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers has been associated with oliguria or progressive azotemia and rarely with acute renal failure and death. Similar results may be anticipated in patients treated with Edarbyclor [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, Use In Specific Populations and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
In studies of ACE inhibitors in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen have been reported. There has been no long-term use of azilsartan medoxomil in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, but similar results are expected.
In patients with renal disease, chlorthalidone may precipitate azotemia. If progressive renal impairment becomes evident, as indicated by increased blood urea nitrogen, consider withholding or discontinuing diuretic therapy.
Serum Electrolyte Imbalances
Thiazide diuretics can cause hyponatremia and hypokalemia. Drugs that inhibit the renin angiotensin system can cause hyperkalemia. Hypokalemia is a dose-dependent adverse reaction that may develop with chlorthalidone. Co-administration of digitalis may exacerbate the adverse effects of hypokalemia. Monitor serum electrolytes periodically.
Edarbyclor attenuates chlorthalidone-associated hypokalemia. In patients with normal potassium levels at baseline, 1.7% of Edarbyclor-treated patients, 0.9% of azilsartan medoxomil-treated patients, and 13.4% of chlorthalidone-treated patients shifted to low potassium values (less than 3.4 mmol/L).
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Tell patients that if they miss a dose, they should take it later in the same day, but not to double the dose on the following day.
Tell female patients of childbearing potential about the consequences of exposure to Edarbyclor during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Tell patients to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.
Advise patients to report light-headedness. Advise patients, if syncope occurs, to have someone call the doctor or seek medical attention, and to discontinue Edarbyclor.
Inform patients that dehydration from excessive perspiration, vomiting, or diarrhea may lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure. Inform patients to consult with their healthcare provider if these symptoms occur.
Inform patients with renal impairment that they should receive periodic blood tests to monitor their renal function while taking Edarbyclor.
Have patients report gout symptoms.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or fertility studies have been conducted with the combination of azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone. However, these studies have been conducted for azilsartan medoxomil alone.
Azilsartan medoxomil was not carcinogenic when assessed in 26-week transgenic (Tg.rasH2) mouse and 2-year rat studies. The highest doses tested (450 mg azilsartan medoxomil/kg/day in the mouse and 600 mg azilsartan medoxomil/kg/day in the rat) produced exposures to azilsartan that are 12 (mice) and 27 (rats) times the average exposure to azilsartan in humans given the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 80 mg azilsartan medoxomil/day). M-II was not carcinogenic when assessed in 26-week Tg.rasH2 mouse and 2-year rat studies. The highest doses tested (approximately 8000 mg M-II/kg/day (males) and 11,000 mg M-II/kg/day (females) in the mouse and 1000 mg M-II/kg/day (males) and up to 3000 mg M-II/kg/day (females) in the rat) produced exposures that are, on average, about 30 (mice) and 7 (rats) times the average exposure to M-II in humans at the MRHD.
Azilsartan medoxomil, azilsartan, and M-II were positive for structural aberrations in the Chinese Hamster Lung Cytogenic Assay. In this assay, structural chromosomal aberrations were observed with the prodrug, azilsartan medoxomil, without metabolic activation. The active moiety, azilsartan, was also positive in this assay both with and without metabolic activation. The major human metabolite, M-II was also positive in this assay during a 24-hr assay without metabolic activation.
Azilsartan medoxomil, azilsartan, and M-II were devoid of genotoxic potential in the Ames reverse mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, the in vitro Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell forward mutation assay, the in vitro mouse lymphoma (tk) gene mutation test, the ex vivo unscheduled DNA synthesis test, and the in vivo mouse and/or rat bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Impairment of Fertility
There was no effect of azilsartan medoxomil on the fertility of male or female rats at oral doses of up to 1000 mg azilsartan medoxomil/kg/day [6000 mg/m² (approximately 122 times the MRHD of 80 mg azilsartan medoxomil/60 kg on a mg/m² basis)]. Fertility of rats also was unaffected at doses of up to 3000 mg M-II/kg/day.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category D
Use of drugs that affect the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Edarbyclor as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.
In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the reninangiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue Edarbyclor, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to Edarbyclor for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia [see Use in Specific Populations].
It is not known if azilsartan is excreted in human milk, but azilsartan is excreted at low concentrations in the milk of lactating rats and thiazide-like diuretics like chlorthalidone are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of Edarbyclor in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established.
Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to Edarbyclor: If oliguria or hypotension occurs, support blood pressure and renal function. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required.
No dose adjustment with Edarbyclor is necessary in elderly patients. Of the total patients in clinical studies with Edarbyclor, 24% were elderly (65 years of age or older); 5.7% were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Safety and effectiveness of Edarbyclor in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m²) have not been established. No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild (eGFR 60-90 mL/min/1.73 m²) or moderate (eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m²) renal impairment.
Chlorthalidone may precipitate azotemia.
No dose adjustment is necessary for subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Azilsartan medoxomil has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/6/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Edarbyclor Information
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