John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
- Edema facts
- What is edema?
- What is pitting edema and how does it differ from non-pitting edema?
- What causes pitting edema?
- How does salt intake affect edema?
- Why does a patient with heart disease retain fluid?
- Why do patients with liver disease develop ascites and edema?
- Why does edema occur in patients with kidney disease?
- What is idiopathic edema?
- How does venous insufficiency cause edema?
- Which diuretics are used to treat edema?
- Are diuretics used for other purposes?
- Find a local Internist in your town
- Edema is a swelling, usually of the legs, due to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the tissues.
- The edema that occurs in diseases of the heart, liver, and kidneys is mainly caused by salt retention, which holds the excess fluid in the body.
- In certain liver and kidney diseases, low levels of albumin in the blood can contribute to fluid retention.
- Heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and a kidney disease called nephrotic syndrome are the most common systemic diseases that cause edema.
- Excess fluid that accumulates in the lungs is called pulmonary edema.
- Excess fluid that accumulates in the abdominal cavity is called ascites.
- Edema of unknown cause occurs primarily in women.
- Varicose veins or thrombophlebitis (a blood clot in an inflamed vein) of the deep veins in the legs causes edema that is localized to the legs.
- Therapy for edema consists of treating the underlying conditions, restricting salt intake, and often using diuretics (medicines to induce urination).
What is edema?
Edema is observable swelling from fluid accumulation in body tissues. Edema most commonly occurs in the feet and legs, where it is referred to as peripheral edema. The swelling is the result of the accumulation of excess fluid under the skin in the spaces within the tissues. All tissues of the body are made up of cells and connective tissues that hold the cells together. This connective tissue around the cells and blood vessels is known as the interstitium. Most of the body's fluids that are found outside of the cells are normally stored in two spaces; the blood vessels (as the "liquid" or serum portion of your blood) and the interstitial spaces (not within the cells). In various diseases, excess fluid can accumulate in either one or both of these compartments.
The body's organs have interstitial spaces where fluid can accumulate. An accumulation of fluid in the interstitial air spaces (alveoli) in the lungs occurs in a disorder called pulmonary edema. In addition, excess fluid sometimes collects in what is called the third space, which includes cavities in the abdomen (abdominal or peritoneal cavity - called "ascites") or in the chest (lung or pleural cavity - called "pleural effusion"). Anasarca refers to the severe, widespread accumulation of fluid in the all of the tissues and cavities of the body at the same time.
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