"NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The dapivirine vaginal ring is effective for HIV-1 prevention in women, according to results from two randomized controlled trials.
"I found the results tremendously encouraging - as real proof of concept t"...
In healthy subjects, supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 mg once daily and 300 mg once daily) have been shown to prolong the QTc interval of the electrocardiogram [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. EDURANT should be used with caution when co-administered with a drug with a known risk of Torsade de Pointes.
Skin And Hypersensitivity Reactions
Severe skin and hypersensitivity reactions have been reported during the postmarketing experience, including cases of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS), with rilpivirine-containing regimens. While some skin reactions were accompanied by constitutional symptoms such as fever, other skin reactions were associated with organ dysfunctions, including elevations in hepatic serum biochemistries. During the Phase 3 clinical trials, treatment-related rashes with at least Grade 2 severity were reported in 3% of subjects receiving EDURANT. No grade 4 rash was reported. Overall, most rashes were Grade 1 or 2 and occurred in the first four to six weeks of therapy [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Discontinue EDURANT immediately if signs or symptoms of severe skin or hypersensitivity reactions develop, including but not limited to, severe rash or rash accompanied by fever, blisters, mucosal involvement, conjunctivitis, facial edema, angioedema, hepatitis or eosinophilia. Clinical status including laboratory parameters should be monitored and appropriate therapy should be initiated.
The adverse reaction depressive disorders (depressed mood, depression, dysphoria, major depression, mood altered, negative thoughts, suicide attempt, suicidal ideation) has been reported with EDURANT. During the Phase 3 trials (N = 1368) through 96 weeks, the incidence of depressive disorders (regardless of causality, severity) reported among EDURANT (n = 686) or efavirenz (n = 682) was 9% and 8%, respectively. Most events were mild or moderate in severity. The incidence of Grade 3 and 4 depressive disorders (regardless of causality) was 1% for both EDURANT and efavirenz. The incidence of discontinuation due to depressive disorders among EDURANT or efavirenz was 1% in each arm. Suicidal ideation was reported in 4 subjects in each arm while suicide attempt was reported in 2 subjects in the EDURANT arm. Patients with severe depressive symptoms should seek immediate medical evaluation to assess the possibility that the symptoms are related to EDURANT, and if so, to determine whether the risks of continued therapy outweigh the benefits.
Hepatic adverse events have been reported in patients receiving a rilpivirine containing regimen. Patients with underlying hepatitis B or C, or marked elevations in transaminases prior to treatment may be at increased risk for worsening or development of transaminase elevations with use of EDURANT. A few cases of hepatic toxicity have been reported in patients receiving a rilpivirine containing regimen who had no pre-existing hepatic disease or other identifiable risk factors. Appropriate laboratory testing prior to initiating therapy and monitoring for hepatotoxicity during therapy with EDURANT is recommended in patients with underlying hepatic disease such as hepatitis B or C, or in patients with marked elevations in transaminases prior to treatment initiation. Liver enzyme monitoring should also be considered for patients without pre-existing hepatic dysfunction or other risk factors.
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat, including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including EDURANT. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia or tuberculosis), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution; however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of treatment.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
A statement to patients and healthcare providers is included on the product's bottle label:
ALERT: Find out about medicines that should NOT be taken with EDURANT from your healthcare provider. A Patient Package Insert for EDURANT is available for patient information.
Patients should be informed that EDURANT is not a cure for HIV infection. Patients must stay on continuous HIV therapy to control HIV infection and decrease HIV-related illnesses. Patients should be advised to continue to practice safer sex and to use latex or polyurethane condoms to lower the chance of sexual contact with any body fluids such as semen, vaginal secretions or blood. Patients should also be advised to never re-use or share needles. Patients should be told that sustained decreases in plasma HIV RNA have been associated with a reduced risk of progression to AIDS and death. Patients should remain under the care of a physician while using EDURANT.
Female patients should be advised not to breastfeed because it is unknown if EDURANT can be passed to the baby in the breast milk and whether it could harm the baby. Also, mothers with HIV-1 should not breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in the breast milk.
Patients should be advised to take EDURANT with a meal once a day as prescribed. A protein drink alone does not replace a meal. EDURANT must always be used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. Patients should not alter the dose of EDURANT or discontinue therapy with EDURANT without consulting their physician. If the patient misses a dose of EDURANT within 12 hours of the time it is usually taken, the patient should take EDURANT with a meal as soon as possible and then take the next dose of EDURANT at the regularly scheduled time. If a patient misses a dose of EDURANT by more than 12 hours, the patient should not take the missed dose, but resume the usual dosing schedule. Inform the patient that he or she should not take more or less than the prescribed dose of EDURANT at any one time.
EDURANT may interact with many drugs; therefore, patients should be advised to report to their healthcare provider the use of any other prescription or nonprescription medication or herbal products, including St. John's wort.
EDURANT should not be co-administered with the following drugs, as significant decreases in rilpivirine plasma concentrations may occur due to CYP3A enzyme induction or gastric pH increase, which may result in loss of virologic response and possible resistance to EDURANT or to the class of NNRTIs: the anticonvulsants carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin; the antimycobacterials rifampin, rifapentine; proton pump inhibitors, such as esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole; the glucocorticoid systemic dexamethasone (more than a single dose); or St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum).
For patients concomitantly receiving rifabutin, the EDURANT dose should be increased to 50 mg once daily, taken with a meal. When rifabutin co-administration is stopped, the EDURANT dose should be decreased to 25 mg once daily, taken with a meal.
Patients should be informed that skin reactions ranging from mild to severe, including Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have been reported with rilpivirine-containing regimens. Instruct patients to immediately stop taking EDURANT tablets and seek medical attention if they develop a rash associated with any of the following symptoms: fever, blisters, mucosal involvement, eye inflammation (conjunctivitis), severe allergic reaction causing a swelling of the face, eyes, lips, mouth, tongue or throat, which may lead to difficulty swallowing or breathing, and any signs and symptoms of liver problems as it may be a sign of a more serious reaction. Patients should understand that if severe rash occurs, they will be closely monitored, laboratory tests will be performed and appropriate therapy will be initiated.
Patients should be informed that depressive disorders (depressed mood, depression, dysphoria, major depression, mood altered, negative thoughts, suicide attempt, suicidal ideation) have been reported with EDURANT. If they experience depressive symptoms, they should seek immediate medical evaluation.
Patients should be informed that hepatotoxicity has been reported with EDURANT.
Patients should also be informed that redistribution or accumulation of body fat may occur in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, including EDURANT, and that the cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known at this time.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis
Rilpivirine was evaluated for carcinogenic potential by oral gavage administration to mice and rats up to 104 weeks. Daily doses of 20, 60 and 160 mg/kg/day were administered to mice and doses of 40, 200, 500 and 1500 mg/kg/day were administered to rats. In rats, there were no drug related neoplasms. In mice, rilpivirine was positive for hepatocellular neoplasms in both males and females. The observed hepatocellular findings in mice may be rodent-specific. At the lowest tested doses in the carcinogenicity studies, the systemic exposures (based on AUC) to rilpivirine were 21-fold (mice) and 3-fold (rats), relative to those observed in humans at the recommended dose (25 mg q.d.).
Rilpivirine has tested negative in the absence and presence of a metabolic activation system in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay and the in vitro clastogenicity mouse lymphoma assay. Rilpivirine did not induce chromosomal damage in the in vivo micronucleus test in mice.
Impairment of Fertility
No human data on the effect of rilpivirine on fertility are available. In a study conducted in rats, there were no effects on mating or fertility with rilpivirine up to 400 mg/kg/day, a dose of rilpivirine that showed maternal toxicity. This dose is associated with an exposure that is approximately 40 times higher than the exposure in humans at the recommended dose of 25 mg once daily.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
No adequate and well-controlled or pharmacokinetic studies of EDURANT use in pregnant women have been conducted. Studies in animals have shown no evidence of relevant embryonic or fetal toxicity or an effect on reproductive function. In offspring from rat and rabbit dams treated with rilpivirine during pregnancy and lactation, there were no toxicologically significant effects on developmental endpoints. The exposures at the embryo-fetal No Observed Adverse Effects Levels (NOAELs) in rats and rabbits were respectively 15 and 70 times higher than the exposure in humans at the recommended dose of 25 mg once daily. EDURANT should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
To monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to EDURANT, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has been established. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-258-4263.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV. Studies in lactating rats and their offspring indicate that rilpivirine was present in rat milk. It is not known whether rilpivirine is secreted in human milk. Because of both the potential for HIV transmission and the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants, mothers should be instructed not to breastfeed if they are receiving EDURANT.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of EDURANT did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration and monitoring of EDURANT in elderly patients reflecting the greater frequency of decreased renal and hepatic function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
No dose adjustment of EDURANT is required in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. EDURANT has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. However, in patients with severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease, rilpivirine should be used with caution and with increased monitoring for adverse effects, as rilpivirine concentrations may be increased due to alteration of drug absorption, distribution, and metabolism secondary to renal dysfunction. As rilpivirine is highly bound to plasma proteins, it is unlikely that it will be significantly removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/30/2017
Additional Edurant Information
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