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While it can be part of a balanced and nutritious diet, grapefruit can have serious consequences when taken with certain medications. Cu"...
Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Anaphylaxis
Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have occurred during and up to 24 hours after infusion. Some of these reactions were life-threatening and included respiratory distress, hypoxia, hypotension, urticaria, and angioedema of the throat or tongue, regardless of duration of the course of treatment.
If anaphylactic or other acute reactions occur, immediately discontinue the infusion of ELAPRASE and initiate appropriate medical treatment. When severe reactions have occurred during clinical trials, subsequent infusions were managed with antihistamine and/or corticosteroids prior to or during infusions, a slower rate of ELAPRASE infusion, and/or early discontinuation of the ELAPRASE infusion [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In clinical trials with ELAPRASE, 16 of 108 (15%) patients experienced hypersensitivity reactions during 26 of 8,274 infusions (0.3%) that involved adverse events in at least two of the following three body systems: cutaneous, respiratory, or cardiovascular. Of these 16 patients, 11 experienced anaphylactic reactions during 19 of 8,274 infusions (0.2%) with symptoms of bronchospasm, cyanosis, dyspnea, erythema, edema (facial and peripheral), flushing, rash, respiratory distress, urticaria, vomiting, and wheezing.
In postmarketing reports, patients receiving ELAPRASE experienced anaphylactic reactions up to several years after initiating treatment. Some patients were reported to have repeated anaphylactic events over a two-to four-month time period. Medical management included treatment with antihistamines, inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, oxygen, and vasopressors. Treatment was discontinued for some patients, while others continued treatment with premedication and a slower infusion rate.
Due to the potential for severe reactions, appropriate medical support should be readily available when ELAPRASE is administered. Observe patients closely for an appropriate period of time after administration of ELAPRASE, taking into account the time to onset of anaphylaxis seen in premarketing clinical trials and postmarketing reports. Inform patients of the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis, and instruct them to seek immediate medical care should signs and symptoms occur.
Risk of Hypersensitivity, Serious Adverse Reactions, and Antibody Development in Hunter Syndrome Patients with Severe Genetic Mutations
In the clinical trial of Hunter syndrome patients aged 7 years and younger, patients with complete gene deletion, large gene rearrangement, nonsense, frameshift or splice site mutations experienced a higher incidence of hypersensitivity reactions, serious adverse reactions and antiidursulfase antibody development than Hunter syndrome patients with missense mutations. Eleven of 15 (73%) patients with complete gene deletion, large gene rearrangement, nonsense, frameshift or splice site mutations and five of 12 (42%) patients with missense mutations experienced hypersensitivity reactions. Nine of 15 (60%) patients with complete gene deletion, large gene rearrangement, nonsense, frameshift or splice site mutations and two of 12 (17%) patients with missense mutations had serious adverse reactions. All 15 patients with complete gene deletion, large gene rearrangement, nonsense, frameshift or splice site mutations developed anti-idursulfase (ELAPRASE) antibodies, compared to only 3 patients with missense mutations (Table 2). Thirteen patients with these mutations developed neutralizing antibodies, which interfere with ELAPRASE uptake into the cell or ELAPRASE enzyme activity, compared to only one patient with missense mutation [see ADVERSE REACTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
Risk of Acute Respiratory Complications
Patients with compromised respiratory function or acute febrile or respiratory illness at the time of ELAPRASE infusion may be at higher risk of life-threatening complications from hypersensitivity reactions. Careful consideration should be given to the patient's clinical status prior to administration of ELAPRASE and consider delaying the ELAPRASE infusion. One patient with a tracheostomy, severe airway disease and acute febrile illness experienced respiratory distress, hypoxia, cyanosis, and seizure with a loss of consciousness during ELAPRASE infusion.
Risk of Acute Cardiorespiratory Failure
Caution should be exercised when administering ELAPRASE to patients susceptible to fluid overload, or patients with acute underlying respiratory illness or compromised cardiac and/or respiratory function for whom fluid restriction is indicated. These patients may be at risk of serious exacerbation of their cardiac or respiratory status during infusions. Appropriate medical support and monitoring measures should be readily available during ELAPRASE infusion, and some patients may require prolonged observation times that should be based on the individual needs of the patient [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential or studies to evaluate mutagenic potential have not been performed with ELAPRASE.
ELAPRASE at intravenous doses up to 5 mg/kg administered twice weekly (about 1.6 times the recommended human weekly dose based on body surface area) had no effect on fertility and reproductive performance in male rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy category C
Teratogenicity studies have not been conducted with ELAPRASE. A pre-and postnatal development study in rats showed no evidence of adverse effects on pre-and postnatal development at intravenous doses up to 12.5 mg/kg, administered twice weekly (about 4 times the recommended human weekly dose of 0.5 mg/kg based on body surface area). There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
ELAPRASE was excreted in breast milk of lactating rats at a concentration higher (4 to 5-fold) than that of the plasma. It is not known whether ELAPRASE is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ELAPRASE is administered to a nursing woman.
Clinical trials with ELAPRASE were conducted in 96 patients with Hunter syndrome, ages 5 to 31 years old, with the majority of the patients in the pediatric age group (median age 15 years old). In addition, an open-label, uncontrolled clinical trial was conducted in 28 patients with Hunter syndrome, ages 16 months to 7.5 years old. Patients 16 months to 5 years of age demonstrated reduction in spleen volume that was similar to that of adults and children 5 years and older. However, there are no data to support improvement in disease-related symptoms or long term clinical outcome in patients 16 months to 5 years of age. [see Clinical Studies].
The safety and effectiveness of ELAPRASE have not been established in pediatric patients less than 16 months of age.
Clinical studies of ELAPRASE did not include patients older than 31 years of age. It is not known whether older patients respond differently from younger patients.
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/5/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Elaprase Information
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