William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- What is an electromyogram?
- Why is an EMG test done?
- How is an intramuscular EMG done?
- How do you prepare for an intramuscular EMG?
- Does an EMG hurt?
- What other test is done during an intramuscular EMG?
Why is an EMG test done?
An EMG is often performed when patients have unexplained muscle weakness. The EMG helps to distinguish between muscle conditions in which the problem begins in the muscle and muscle weakness due to nerve disorders. The EMG can also be used to detect true weakness, as opposed to weakness from reduced use because of pain or lack of motivation. EMGs can also be used to isolate the level of nerve irritation or injury.
How is an intramuscular EMG done?
A needle is inserted through the skin into the muscle. The electrical activity is detected by this needle (which serves as an electrode). The activity is displayed visually on an oscilloscope and may also be detected audibly with a speaker.
Since skeletal muscles are often large, several needle electrodes may need to be placed at various locations to obtain an informative EMG.
After placement of the electrode(s), the patient may be asked to contract the muscle (for example, to bend the leg).
The presence, size, and shape of the wave form (the action potential) produced on the oscilloscope provide information about the ability of the muscle to respond to nervous stimulation. Each muscle fiber that contracts produces an action potential. The size of the muscle fiber affects the rate (how frequently an action potential occurs) and the size (the amplitude) of the action potential.
How do you prepare for an intramuscular EMG?
For adults, no special preparation is needed. For infants and children, the physical and psychological preparation depends on the child's age, behavior, and prior experience. (For instance, has the child been traumatized by another medical or dental procedure?)
Does an EMG hurt?
Yes. There is some discomfort at the time the needle electrodes are inserted. They feel like shots (intramuscular injections), although nothing is injected during an EMG. Afterwards, the muscle may feel a little sore for up to a few days.
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