"An estimated half a million epinephrine autoinjectors are coming off the market. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is advising patients to call their doctor for an alternative, but some say there won't be enough supply to meet the demand."...
Mechanism of Action
Epinastine is a topically active, direct H1-receptor antagonist and an inhibitor of the release of histamine from the mast cell. Epinastine is selective for the histamine H1-receptor and has affinity for the histamine H2receptor. Epinastine also possesses affinity for the α1, α 2-, and 5-HT2–receptors.
Fourteen subjects, with allergic conjunctivitis, received one drop of ELESTAT® ophthalmic solution in each eye twice daily for 7 days. On day 7, average maximum epinastine plasma concentrations of 0.04±0.014 ng/ml were reached after about two hours indicating low systemic exposure. While these concentrations represented an increase over those seen following a single dose, the day 1 and day 7 Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were unchanged indicating that there is no increase in systemic absorption with multiple dosing. Epinastine is 64% bound to plasma proteins. The total systemic clearance is approximately 56 L/hr and the terminal plasma elimination half-life is about 12 hours. Epinastine is mainly excreted unchanged. About 55% of an intravenous dose is recovered unchanged in the urine with about 30% in feces. Less than 10% is metabolized. The renal elimination is mainly via active tubular secretion.
Epinastine HCl 0.05% has been shown to be significantly superior to vehicle for improving ocular itching in patients with allergic conjunctivitis in clinical studies using two different models: (1) conjunctival antigen challenge (CAC) where patients were dosed and then received antigen instilled into the inferior conjunctival fornix; and (2) environmental field studies where patients were dosed and evaluated during allergy season in their natural habitat. Results demonstrated a rapid onset of action for epinastine HCl 0.05% within 3 to 5 minutes after conjunctival antigen challenge. Duration of effect was shown to be 8 hours, making a twice daily regimen suitable. This dosing regimen was shown to be safe and effective for up to 8 weeks, without evidence of tachyphylaxis.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/17/2017
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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