"May 31, 2013 -- More than 2 million Americans have an abnormal heart rhythm known as atrial fibrillation, raising their risk of blood clots leading to stroke. For many years, the blood thinner Coumadin (warfarin) was the only game in town to help"...
Increased Risk Of Thrombotic Events After Premature Discontinuation
Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including ELIQUIS, in the absence of adequate alternative anticoagulation increases the risk of thrombotic events. An increased rate of stroke was observed during the transition from ELIQUIS to warfarin in clinical trials in atrial fibrillation patients. If ELIQUIS is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Clinical Studies].
Concomitant use of drugs affecting hemostasis increases the risk of bleeding. These include aspirin and other antiplatelet agents, other anticoagulants, heparin, thrombolytic agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Advise patients of signs and symptoms of blood loss and to report them immediately or go to an emergency room. Discontinue ELIQUIS in patients with active pathological hemorrhage.
Reversal Of Anticoagulant Effect
A specific antidote for ELIQUIS is not available, and there is no established way to reverse bleeding in patients taking ELIQUIS. The pharmacodynamic effect of ELIQUIS can be expected to persist for at least 24 hours after the last dose, i.e., for about two drug half-lives. Use of procoagulant reversal agents, such as prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), activated prothrombin complex concentrate or recombinant factor VIIa, may be considered but has not been evaluated in clinical studies [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. When PCCs are used, monitoring for the anticoagulation effect of apixaban using a clotting test (PT, INR, or aPTT) or anti-factor Xa (FXa) activity is not useful and is not recommended. Activated oral charcoal reduces absorption of apixaban, thereby lowering apixaban plasma concentration [see Overdosage (10)].
Hemodialysis does not appear to have a substantial impact on apixaban exposure [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Protamine sulfate and vitamin K are not expected to affect the anticoagulant activity of apixaban. There is no experience with antifibrinolytic agents (tranexamic acid, aminocaproic acid) in individuals receiving apixaban. There is no experience with systemic hemostatics (desmopressin and aprotinin) in individuals receiving apixaban and they are not expected to be effective as a reversal agent.
Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia Or Puncture
When neuraxial anesthesia (spinal/epidural anesthesia) or spinal/epidural puncture is employed, patients treated with antithrombotic agents for prevention of thromboembolic complications are at risk of developing an epidural or spinal hematoma which can result in long-term or permanent paralysis.
The risk of these events may be increased by the postoperative use of indwelling epidural catheters or the concomitant use of medicinal products affecting hemostasis. Indwelling epidural or intrathecal catheters should not be removed earlier than 24 hours after the last administration of ELIQUIS. The next dose of ELIQUIS should not be administered earlier than 5 hours after the removal of the catheter. The risk may also be increased by traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal puncture. If traumatic puncture occurs, delay the administration of ELIQUIS for 48 hours.
Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment (e.g., numbness or weakness of the legs, bowel, or bladder dysfunction). If neurological compromise is noted, urgent diagnosis and treatment is necessary. Prior to neuraxial intervention the physician should consider the potential benefit versus the risk in anticoagulated patients or in patients to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis.
Patients With Prosthetic Heart Valves
Acute PE In Hemodynamically Unstable Patients Or Patients Who Require Thrombolysis Or Pulmonary Embolectomy
Initiation of ELIQUIS is not recommended as an alternative to unfractionated heparin for the initial treatment of patients with PE who present with hemodynamic instability or who may receive thrombolysis or pulmonary embolectomy.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise patients to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Advise patients of the following:
- Not to discontinue ELIQUIS without talking to their physician first.
- That it might take longer than usual for bleeding to stop, and they may bruise or bleed more easily when treated with ELIQUIS. Advise patients about how to recognize bleeding or symptoms of hypovolemia and of the urgent need to report any unusual bleeding to their physician.
- To tell their physicians and dentists they are taking ELIQUIS, and/or any other product known to affect bleeding (including nonprescription products, such as aspirin or NSAIDs), before any surgery or medical or dental procedure is scheduled and before any new drug is taken.
- If the patient is having neuraxial anesthesia or spinal puncture, inform the patient to watch for signs and symptoms of spinal or epidural hemtomas [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. If any of these symptoms occur, advise the patient to seek emergent medical attention.
- To tell their physicians if they are pregnant or plan to become pregnant or are breastfeeding or intend to breastfeed during treatment with ELIQUIS [see Use In Specific Populations].
- How to take ELIQUIS if they cannot swallow, or require a nasogastric tube [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
- What to do if a dose is missed [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Apixaban was not carcinogenic when administered to mice and rats for up to 2 years. The systemic exposures (AUCs) of unbound apixaban in male and female mice at the highest doses tested (1500 and 3000 mg/kg/day) were 9 and 20 times, respectively, the human exposure of unbound drug at the MRHD of 10 mg/day. Systemic exposures of unbound apixaban in male and female rats at the highest dose tested (600 mg/kg/day) were 2 and 4 times, respectively, the human exposure.
Apixaban was neither mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay, nor clastogenic in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro, in a 1-month in vivo/in vitro cytogenetics study in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes, or in a rat micronucleus study in vivo.
Impairment Of Fertility
Apixaban had no effect on fertility in male or female rats when given at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day, a dose resulting in exposure levels that are 3 and 4 times, respectively, the human exposure.
Apixaban administered to female rats at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day from implantation through the end of lactation produced no adverse findings in male offspring (F1 generation) at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day, a dose resulting in exposure that is 5 times the human exposure. Adverse effects in the F - generation female offspring were limited to decreased mating and fertility indices at 1000 mg/kg/day.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ELIQUIS in pregnant women. Treatment is likely to increase the risk of hemorrhage during pregnancy and delivery. ELIQUIS should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the mother and fetus.
Treatment of pregnant rats, rabbits, and mice after implantation until the end of gestation resulted in fetal exposure to apixaban, but was not associated with increased risk for fetal malformations or toxicity. No maternal or fetal deaths were attributed to bleeding. Increased incidence of maternal bleeding was observed in mice, rats, and rabbits at maternal exposures that were 19, 4, and 1 times, respectively, the human exposure of unbound drug, based on area under plasma-concentration time curve (AUC) comparisons at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 10 mg (5 mg twice daily).
Labor And Delivery
Safety and effectiveness of ELIQUIS during labor and delivery have not been studied in clinical trials. Consider the risks of bleeding and of stroke in using ELIQUIS in this setting [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Treatment of pregnant rats from implantation (gestation Day 7) to weaning (lactation Day 21) with apixaban at a dose of 1000 mg/kg (about 5 times the human exposure based on unbound apixaban) did not result in death of offspring or death of mother rats during labor in association with uterine bleeding. However, increased incidence of maternal bleeding, primarily during gestation, occurred at apixaban doses of ≥25 mg/kg, a dose corresponding to ≥1.3 times the human exposure.
It is unknown whether apixaban or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Rats excrete apixaban in milk (12% of the maternal dose).
Women should be instructed either to discontinue breastfeeding or to discontinue ELIQUIS therapy, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the total subjects in the ARISTOTLE and AVERROES clinical studies, >69% were 65 and older, and >31% were 75 and older. In the ADVANCE-1, ADVANCE-2, and ADVANCE-3 clinical studies, 50% of subjects were 65 and older, while 16% were 75 and older. In the AMPLIFY and AMPLIFYEXT clinical studies, >32% of subjects were 65 and older and >13% were 75 and older. No clinically significant differences in safety or effectiveness were observed when comparing subjects in different age groups.
The recommended dose is 2.5 mg twice daily in patients with at least two of the following characteristics [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]:
- age ≥80 years
- body weight ≤60 kg
- serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL
Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease On Dialysis
Clinical efficacy and safety studies with ELIQUIS did not enroll patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis. In patients with ESRD maintained on intermittent hemodialysis, administration of ELIQUIS at the usually recommended dose [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION] will result in concentrations of apixaban and pharmacodynamic activity similar to those observed in the ARISTOTLE study [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. It is not known whether these concentrations will lead to similar stroke reduction and bleeding risk in patients with ESRD on dialysis as was seen in ARISTOTLE.
No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment, including those with ESRD on dialysis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Clinical efficacy and safety studies with ELIQUIS did not enroll patients with ESRD on dialysis or patients with a CrCl <15 mL/min; therefore, dosing recommendations are based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (anti-FXa activity) data in subjects with ESRD maintained on dialysis [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A).
Because patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) may have intrinsic coagulation abnormalities and there is limited clinical experience with ELIQUIS in these patients, dosing recommendations cannot be provided [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
ELIQUIS is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/6/2016
Additional Eliquis Information
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