"Cancer patients with limited finances are more likely to have increased symptoms and poorer quality of life, say the authors of a new study published online February 29 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Clinically Significant CYP3A4 Drug Interactions
Aprepitant is a substrate, a weak-to-moderate (dose-dependent) inhibitor, and an inducer of CYP3A4.
- Use of EMEND with other drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates,
may result in increased plasma concentration of the concomitant drug.
- Use of pimozide with EMEND is contraindicated due to the risk of significantly increased plasma concentrations of pimozide, potentially resulting in prolongation of the QT interval, a known adverse reaction of pimozide [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
- Use of EMEND with strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, diltiazem) may increase plasma concentrations of aprepitant and result in an increased risk of adverse reactions related to EMEND.
- Use of EMEND with strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., rifampin) may result in a reduction in aprepitant plasma concentrations and decreased efficacy of EMEND.
See Table 10 and Table 11 for a listing of potentially significant drug interactions [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Decrease In INR With Concomitant Warfarin
Coadministration of EMEND with warfarin, a CYP2C9 substrate, may result in a clinically significant decrease in International Normalized Ratio (INR) of prothrombin time [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Monitor the INR in patients on chronic warfarin therapy in the 2-week period, particularly at 7 to 10 days, following initiation of the 3-day regimen of EMEND with each chemotherapy cycle, or following administration of a single 40-mg dose of EMEND for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Risk Of Reduced Efficacy Of Hormonal Contraceptives
Upon coadministration with EMEND, the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced during administration of and for 28 days following the last dose of EMEND [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Advise patients to use effective alternative or back-up methods of contraception during treatment with EMEND and for 1 month following the last dose of EMEND [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, Use In Specific Populations].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Advise patients that hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported in patients taking EMEND. Advise patients to stop taking EMEND and seek immediate medical attention if they experience signs or symptoms of a hypersensitivity reaction, such as hives, rash and itching, skin peeling or sores, or difficulty in breathing or swallowing.
Advise patients to discuss all medications they are taking, including other prescription, nonprescription medication or herbal products [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Warfarin: Instruct patients on chronic warfarin therapy to follow instructions from their healthcare provider regarding blood draws to monitor their INR during the 2-week period, particularly at 7 to 10 days, following initiation of the 3-day regimen of EMEND with each chemotherapy cycle, or following administration of a single 40-mg dose of EMEND for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Hormonal Contraceptives: Advise patients that administration of EMEND may reduce the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives. Instruct patients to use effective alternative or back-up methods of contraception (such as condoms and spermicides) during treatment with EMEND and for 1 month following the last dose of EMEND [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use In Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats and in CD-1 mice for 2 years. In the rat carcinogenicity studies, animals were treated with oral doses ranging from 0.05 to 1000 mg/kg twice daily. The highest dose produced a systemic exposure to aprepitant (AUC) of 0.7 to 1.6 times the adult human exposure at the 125-mg/80-mg/80-mg EMEND regimen. Treatment with aprepitant at doses of 5 to 1000 mg/kg twice daily caused an increase in the incidences of thyroid follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. In female rats, it produced hepatocellular adenomas at 5 to 1000 mg/kg twice daily and hepatocellular carcinomas and thyroid follicular cell adenomas at 125 to 1000 mg/kg twice daily. In the mouse carcinogenicity studies, the animals were treated with oral doses ranging from 2.5 to 2000 mg/kg/day. The highest dose produced a systemic exposure of about 2.8 to 3.6 times the adult human exposure at the 125-mg/80-mg/80-mg EMEND regimen. Treatment with aprepitant produced skin fibrosarcomas at 125 and 500 mg/kg/day doses in male mice.
Aprepitant was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the human lymphoblastoid cell (TK6) mutagenesis test, the rat hepatocyte DNA strand break test, the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell chromosome aberration test and the mouse micronucleus test.
Impairment of Fertility
Aprepitant did not affect the fertility or general reproductive performance of male or female rats at doses up to the maximum feasible dose of 1000 mg/kg twice daily (providing exposure in male rats lower than the exposure at the recommended adult human dose and exposure in female rats at about 1.6 times the adult human exposure at the 125-mg/80-mg/80-mg EMEND regimen).
Use In Specific Populations
There are insufficient data on use of EMEND in pregnant women to inform a drug associated risk. In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed in rats or rabbits exposed during the period of organogenesis to systemic drug levels (AUC) approximately 1.5 times the adult human exposure at the 125-mg/80-mg/80-mg EMEND regimen [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
In embryofetal development studies in rats and rabbits, aprepitant was administered during the period of organogenesis at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg twice daily in rats and up to the maximum tolerated dose of 25 mg/kg/day in rabbits. No embryofetal lethality or malformations were observed at any dose level in either species. The exposures (AUC) in pregnant rats at 1000 mg/kg twice daily and in pregnant rabbits at 125 mg/kg/day were approximately 1.5 times the adult exposure at the 125-mg/80mg/80-mg EMEND regimen. Aprepitant crosses the placenta in rats and rabbits.
Lactation studies have not been conducted to assess the presence of aprepitant in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Aprepitant is present in rat milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for EMEND and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from EMEND or from the underlying maternal condition.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Upon administration of EMEND, the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Advise females of reproductive potential using hormonal contraceptives to use an effective alternative or back-up non-hormonal contraceptive (such as condoms and spermicides) during treatment with EMEND and for 1 month following the last dose [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting Associated with HEC or MEC
The safety and effectiveness of EMEND for oral suspension have been established in pediatric patients 6 months of age and older and EMEND capsules in pediatric patients 12 years of age and older for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of HEC, including high-dose cisplatin, and MEC. Use of EMEND in these age groups is supported by evidence from 302 pediatric patients in a randomized, double-blind, active comparator controlled clinical study (n = 207 patients aged 6 months to less than 12 years, n = 95 patients aged 12 through 17 years). EMEND was studied in combination with ondansetron with or without dexamethasone (at the discretion of the physician) [see Clinical Studies]. Adverse reactions were similar to those reported in adult patients [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
The safety and effectiveness of EMEND for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with HEC or MEC have not been established in patients less than 6 months.
Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)
The safety and effectiveness of EMEND have not been established for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in pediatric patients.
Juvenile Animal Study
A study was conducted in young rats to evaluate the effects of aprepitant on growth and on neurobehavioral and sexual development. Rats were treated at oral doses up to the maximum feasible dose of 1000 mg/kg twice daily (providing exposure in male rats lower than the exposure at the recommended pediatric human dose and exposure in female rats equivalent to the pediatric human exposure) from the early postnatal period (Postnatal Day 10) through Postnatal Day 58. Slight changes in the onset of sexual maturation were observed in female and male rats; however, there were no effects on mating, fertility, embryonic-fetal survival, or histomorphology of the reproductive organs. There were no effects in neurobehavioral tests of sensory function, motor function, and learning and memory.
Of the 544 adult cancer patients treated with EMEND in CINV clinical studies, 31% were aged 65 and over, while 5% were aged 75 and over. Of the 1120 adult cancer patients treated with EMEND in PONV clinical studies, 7% were aged 65 and over, while 2% were aged 75 and over. Other reported clinical experience with EMEND has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, use caution when dosing elderly patients as they have a greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patients With Renal Impairment
The pharmacokinetics of aprepitant in patients with severe renal impairment and those with end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis were similar to those of healthy subjects with normal renal function. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with any degree of renal impairment or for patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis.
Patients With Hepatic Impairment
The pharmacokinetics of aprepitant in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment were similar to those of healthy subjects with normal hepatic function. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 5 to 9). There are no clinical or pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score greater than 9). Therefore, additional monitoring for adverse reactions in these patients may be warranted when EMEND is administered [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/26/2015
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